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Extracts from the litigation follow.

"V. Wilson & Shaw 84 [1 S. 226 -. 4 S. 734].
JAMES GALBRAITH, Appellant.—T. H. Miller—Sandford.
EICHAKD GALBRAITH, Respondent.—Sir Charles Wetherell—Lushington.
1st March 1831.

SERVICE.—Held (affirming the judgment of the Court of Session), in a question as to the validity of a service, that there was sufficient evidence before the jury to prove that the party served was the substitute called in a deed of entail,—the party challenging having failed to establish the existence of any other person to whom the designation in the entail could apply.

James Galbraith of Balgair executed in 1705 a deed of entail, by which he conveyed the lands of Balgair to himself and the heirs of his body, whom failing: —1. To John Galbraith, eldest son of George Galbraith, merchant burgess in Edinburgh; 2. James, second son of George Galbraith; 3. " Major Hugh " Galbraith, in the kingdom of Ireland, son of the deceased Andrew Galbraith, " the entailer's father's brother consanguinean;" 4. Captain Robert Galbraith, in the kingdom of Ireland; 5. John Galbraith of Old Graden; 6. Archibald Buchanan of Drumhead, and such of his sons as the entailer should point out; 7. John Galbraith, in Hill of Balgair, and the heirs male of their several bodies respectively; whom all failing, to certain other substitutes.

The entailer left no issue, and in 1794 the first and second branches of the substitution became extinct. Advertisements were thereupon published, calling on the heirs next in succession to come forward; in consequence of which brieves were obtained by Richard Galbraith in 1806, claiming as heir male of Major Hugh Galbraith, the third substitute in the entail; and by William Arthur Galbraith, who claimed as representing Captain Robert Galbraith, the fourth substitute. A competition ensued, in which Richard Galbraith established his descent from a Major Hugh Galbraith of Capahard, in [85] Ireland, who was a Major in the King's army at the date of the entail. The chief evidence of the above person being the Major Hugh mentioned in the third substitution was, that he was proved to have spoken with a Scottish accent, and to have been considered a Scotchman; and that in a letter from the son of Captain Robert, the fourth substitute (who resided near the Major in Ireland), to the son of the latter, he addressed him as " dear cousin." But there was no other trace of his connexion with the family of Balgair, while the will of Captain Robert (the fourth substitute), executed in 1708, contained a reference to the event of his own eldest son succeeding to the estate of James Galbraith of Balgair, which, it was said, could not have happened if this Major Galbraith of Capahard, who resided in his neighbourhood, had been the third substitute, as he had five sons, all of whom must have succeeded before Captain Robert's family. On the other hand, William Arthur Galbraith failed in proving any connexion with the fourth S.R.R. v. 32
substitute; and the Jury, by a majority, served Pachard, who accordingly entered into possession of the estate of Balgair.

In 1820 a James Galbraith, after being served heir male of John Galbraith in Hill of Balgair, the seventh substitute, raised the present action of reduction improbation, concluding to have Kichard's service set aside, on the ground that there was no sufficient evidence laid before the inquest that his ancestor was Major Hugh Galbraith, the third substitute in the entail, to warrant the service, and to have it found that he, James, was entitled to possession of the estate. Eichard objected to the pursuer's title, but the Lord Ordinary sustained it; and the Court, on the 21st of December 1821, adhered "to the effect of sustaining " the pursuer's title to insist in the reductive conclusion of the respondent's " libel, reserving consideration as to all other points of the libel." Thereafter the Lord Ordinary found, on the merits, " That in the absence of all proof exist" ing or offered to the contrary, the circumstances proven on the side of the " defender afford sufficient grounds for inferring that Major Hugh Galbraith, of " whose body the defender is heir male, was Major Galbraith, of the kingdom " of Ireland, who, and the heirs of whose body, are called in the entail of " [86] Balgair," and therefore repelled the reasons of reduction, and assoilzied the defender; and the Court, on the 20th of June 1826, adhered.

James Galbraith appealed.

LORD WTNFORD. —" My Lords, your Lordships have been pressed with great earnestness to take care how you overturn the law of Scotland. I believe I am as anxious as any man in this House can be, never to trench upon the law of Scotland. If ever I should find that the law is at variance with justice, I should still think it my duty to act according to that law, leaving it to your Lordships in [87] your legislative character to alter it. But I should hope there is little danger of overturning the law of Scotland, when I am about to advise your Lordships to affirm the judgment which has been pronounced by the Courts in Scotland.

"A person of the name of Galbraith, in the year 1705, now considerably more than 100 years ago, made a deed of entail in the following terms:—' On me, James Galbraith, and the heirs to be procreate of my own body; which failing, to John Galbraith (who is the first substitute), eldest lawful son to umquhill George Galbraith, merchant, burgess of Edinburgh, my cousin german, and the heirs male lawfully to be procreate of his body; which failing, to James Galbraith, second lawful son to the said umquhill George Galbraith, and the heirs male lawfully to be procreate of his body; which failing, to Major Hugh Galbraith in the kingdom of Ireland,'

The succession then opened to the heirs of Major Hugh Galbraith of Ireland, the third substitute, and advertisements were inserted in the newspapers, calling on such to come forward. The respondent's elder brother, Andrew Galbraith, accordingly entered appearance, and claimed the estate;and on his death, the respondent took out a brieve for expeding a service in his own name, as the great grandson, and heir-male of Major Hugh Galbraith, the third substitute. His right, however, was disputed by William Arthur Galbraith in Ireland, who claimed under the fourth substitute, on the supposition that Major Galbraith, the third substitute, had died without lawful male issue,—and by .lames Galbi'aith of Yetholm, in Scotland, who alleged that the first four branches of the substitution had become extinct, and that he was the heir-male of John Galbraitli of Old Graden, the fifth substitute. Proofs were led before the Macers, and a Jury pronounced a verdict (IStli August 1806), by which the respondent was served " nearest and lawful heir of tailzio and provision in special to the said deceased James Galbraith of Balgair." This service was retoured, and a precept issued from the Chancery, in virtue of which the respondent was infeft in the lands. In 1820, the appellant, James Galbraith, on the allegation that he was the eldest lawful son of the deceased Archibald Galbraith, farmer in Honeyholm, and great-great-greatgrandson of John Galbraith in the Hill of Balg-air, the seventh substitute in said entail, raised an action of reduction-improbation, declarator and count and reckoning against the respondent. The summons inter alia, narrates, that the service, " and retour, and other writings and titles following tTirrcon, were obtained in the absence of James Gallmiirli of Culholm, a descendsnt of John Galhraith of Old Graden, the (il'tli nominatim substitute in the entail, who*was then alive, but who, being at an advanced age, and having no male issue, deelined to dispute the said Richard Galbraith's servie;', by which means he was served in absence, and to the great hurt and prejudice of the pursuer, James Galbraith, heir of tailzie and provision to the said James Galbraith, last of Balpair, in the said entailed1 estate of Polgairs, or Balgair, notwithstanding that, from the failure of all the intermediate heirs, the said succession devolved upon the said James (jalbraith of Culholm, us heir of the fifth i>nininatini Hibstituie, and by his death, and that of the said .Archibald Galbraith in Honeyholm, father of James Galbraith, the pursuer, the succession devolved upon the pursuer as grcatgreat-grcat-grandson of, John Galbraitb, in Hill of Balgair, the seventh nominaiim substitute."

The reasons of reduction, as stated in the summons, were, in the first place, the ordinary reasons of style ; Secundo,

" The said pretended special sen-ice, retour, precept from Chan. eery, and instrument of sasine, proceed on false narratives, without due authority or legal evidence, and are altogether irregular and invalid. !/Vr//», The foresaid pretended special service was obtained by the said Richard Galbraith, in absence of the beforenamcd James Gulhraith of Culholm, now deceased, the descendant of John Galbraith of Old Graden, the fifth nomiiiatim substitute in the said deed of entail, who, as aforesaid, declined to oppose the said Bit-hard Gnlbrailh's sen-ice, whereby he was served entirely in absence of the proper heir, in the false character of great-grandson of Major Hugh Galbraith. the third nominal tin substitute in the said entail of Polgairs, or Balgair, although the said Richard Gtilbfiiith of C'appnhard was in no way, planner, or degree descendedfrom, or connected with, tbe said Major Hugh Galbraith of the kingdom of Ireland, son to the deceased Andrew Galbraith, the entailer's father's brother rontimguincan, and the third nmninatim substitute aforesaid. Qnnrlo, The evidence led, adduced and exhibited by the said Richard Galbraitb of Cappahard, in the foresuid service, was false, feigned, forged, simulate and devised, utterly inconsistent and contradictory in itself, totally incompetent to establish the alleged claim, and entirely destitute of authority, and unworthy of credit; and the parole evidence wns likewise taken in Ireland, in a manner contrary to, end inconsistent with the laws, and inadmissible by the practice of this country. Quinto, F.alo, That the said evidence had in all respects been unexceptionable, still it was utterly defective as to establishing the pretended claim of the said Richard Galbraith of Cappahard. that he was the greatgrandson of, or in any way or manner descended from the said Major Hugh Galbraiih, the third nominaiim substitute aforesaid jm the said deed of entail, or that the said Richard Galbraith of Cappahard, was in any way descended from, or related to the said James Galbraith of I'olgairs, or Balgair, the entailer, or of James Galbraith, last of Polgairs, or 1'alpair, who was vest and seised in the saidestutc in the year 1701. and died in the year 1794."

After a proof and a variety of procedure, Lord Mackenzie, on the 25th November 1823, pronounced this interlocutor :—

" The Lord Ordinary having considered the memorials for the parties, and whole process, Finds, that, in the absence of all proof existing, or offered by the pursuer, to the contrary, the circumstances proven on the side of the defender, afford' sufficient ground for inferring that Major Galbraith, of whose body the defender is heir-male, was Major Galbraith, of the kingdom of Ireland, who, and the heirs-male of whose body, are called in the entail of Balgair; therefore, and upon the whole case, repels the reasons of reduction, and ussoilzies the defender and decerns : Finds no expenses due to either prrty."

The appellant reclaimed ; but the Court, on the 20th June 1826, adhered.

The appellant then took the case by appeal to the House of Lords, and pleaded—I. The interlocutors complained of proceed upon a fundamental mistake :is to the nature of the question, in so fur as they take for granted that it was incumbent on the appellant to Jcad evidence at all, or to do anything more than to show that the evidence referred to by the respondent, in support of the service under reduction, does not prove the facts which it was incumbent upon him to prove.—II. Tbo respondent has not proved that be is the nearest heir-male alive of the third substitute in the entail, through whom he claims the estate, viz. Major Hugh Galbraith in the kingdom of Irelaml, son to the deceased Andrew Galbraith, the entailer'a father's brother consanguinean, nor indeed has he proved that he is at all connected with that person.

A great part of the evidence relied upon by the respondent, and without which, confessedly, his case cannot he made out, is unworthy of credit. Answered—I. The appellant has failed to establish any of the grounds on which his action of reduction proceeded. —II. The respondent was justly and legally served heir to the entailed estate of Balgair.—III. The appellant has failed to identify Hugh Galbraith, merchant, burgess in Glasgow, with a pretended Major Galbraith of the county of Longford, and to make him the third substitute.

Lord Whitford —My Lords, your Lordships have, with great earnestness, been warned to take rare how you overturn tlie law of Scotland. I for one, I believe, am as anxious us any man in this House can be, never to trench upon the law of Scotland. If ever I should find that the law pf Scotland is it variance with justice, I should still think it my duty to act according to that law, leaving it to your Lordships, in your hgislative character, to alter it. But I should hope there is liitle danger of overturning the law of Scotland, when I am about to advise your Lordships to affirm the judgment which has boon pronounced by the Courts in Scotland. There might be, perhaps, some reason for alarm, if I were about to overturn that judgment; but I should hope the law of Scotland will be safe under the protection of the Court of Session, and also under the protection of this House. The learned Counsel, who has argued with great ability, has supposed that we shall overturn the law of Scotland, if we do not support the claim of the seventh substitute, on the ground that that seventh substitute has had his right found by a Jury, and that that right has not been appealed against, and that, consequently, it must be taken as having been decided ; but the learned Counsel will recollect that hv admitted, that though that would prevail in the absence of any nearer claimant bringing forward a claim, yet that the moment a nearer claimant proved his claim, that instant tie right of the seventh substitute is gone. Now, if your Lordships should be of opinion that the nearer claimant has offered satisfactory evidence of his claim, then, by deciding in his favour, we shall not overturn the law of Scotland—we shall not treiic-h upon the opinion so ably given by Lord Alemore, in the Douglas case, but we shall be deciding in entire accordance with the principles of the law of Scotland. As some of your Lordships were not here when this case was first begun, it will be necessary that I should state, shortly, the circumstances of the case, which I shall be able to dp the more briefly from having had a good deal of time to consider this case. Your Lordships will recollect that a person of the name of Galbmith, so long ago as the year 1705, now considerably more than 100 years ago, made this entail, which is consistent with the law ''' Scotland, but inconsistent with the law of England; and by the deed of entail, the estate " to be made, given and granted tome, the said James Gnlbraith, and the heirs to be procreate of my own body; which failing, to John Galbraith," (who is the first substitute) "eldest lawful son to umquhill George Gidliraith, merchant, burgess of Edinburgh, my cousin-gentian, and tie heirs-male lawfully to be procreate of his body; which fuilui?. to James Galbmith, second lawful son to the said umquhill George Ga'braith, and the heirs-male lawfully to be procreate of his body, which failing,"—(now comes the question which your Lordships are called upon to decide, whether the claimant, under this person, has made out, by reasonable evidence, his claim?) " which failing, to Major Hugh Oalbmith, in the kingdom of Ireland,"—he does not say o/the kingdom of Ireland, but, in the kingdom of Ireland,—" son of the deceased Andrew Galbraitb, my father's brother consanguinean." Now, unquestionably, I concede to the learned counsel, that before the respond', nt can establish bis case, he must give your Lordships reasonable evidence, that the person who is called in the evidence, Major Galbraitb, was son to Andrew Galbraith, the settler's father's brother consanguinean. I beg leave, however, to state to your Lordships, that these facts we not required, nor are any facts in any Court of Judicature required to bo proved by direct positive evidence. These facts niny be raised by prefi-niption,—and, indeed, most of the faets upon which Courts of Justice act, not only in civil, but in criminal cases, even those which affect the liberty and character and lives of individuals, are raised by presumption—and the question for your Lordships is, whether of those facts that are not directly proved in this case a presumption, unrepelled, has been proved, sufficient to satisfy your Lordships of their existence ? Now, 1 will stale to your Lordships my opinion of the doctrine of presumptive evidence :— Presumptive evidence means this—where one fact, or several, closely connected with the fact to be proved, are so strongly proved as to render it highly probable that that connection exists ;—if they are, unless the inference arising from that fact is rebutted by contrary proof, your Lordships may act upon the presumption. Now, so far, as to the extent that I am now about to mention, your Lordships have direct positive proof. You have direct positive proof that there was a Major Galbraith in the kingdom of Ireland ; because that is proved by the best possible evidence—namely, by the evidence of the testator himself. But the next fact, which undoubtedly is equally necessary to your Lordships to be satisfied of, is, that the person under whom these parties claim, was descended from the Major Hugh Galbraith in Ireland, which Major Hugh Galbraith was the son of the deceased Galbraith, whom the testator describes as "my father's brother consanguinean." Of that you have no direct evidence; and, perhaps, in the imperfect Hate of the Registers of Scotland at that time, it would be difficult now to furnish your Lordships with direct evidence of that; but then comes the question, Have your Lordships any facts proved in this case, from whence you can infer that the Major Galbrakh who was in Ireland, answered the other description, of being a son of this Andrew, the brother of the settler Now, my Lords, this person, it is quite clear, whoever he was, had gone from Scotland many years before. It does not appear that the settler knew in what part of Ireland he was. If he had, it i most probable that, in this instrument of settlement, he would have given a more particular description of him—stating him to be Major Galbraith of Cappahard, or any other place. But he appears not to have known where he was, and therefore he gives no better description of him. Then, is that want of description supplied by uther evidence ? That this Major Galbraitb was a major, there can be no doubt, because your Lordships have the return of the army in which he appears to be a major, although certainly not a major in the regiment in which he was once supposed to be. But you have also this important fact, which you will find to be most important, when connected with some parole evidence, that he was a major that served in Flanders, Did, then, Major Galbraith serve in Flanders? It is proved by Colonel Persse, who was a near relation, I rather think a nephew of the wife of Major Galbraith, a lady whom your Lordships may recollect, was courted in rather an extraordinary way by this gallant major, namely, that when lie went for the purpose of taking her to church, he was attended by a party of horse, in order to carry her away by force. We have heard of something like that in other countries, where they are in the hiabit of giving a good beating, in order to create affection. But it is no evidence in this case, that this marriage was completed by the gallant captain, who was then only captain, after carrying the lady away in the manner I have described. Now, your Lordships have evidence which, I think, makes this man to be a major beyond all doubt, and to be the major who married this lady; for you have the lady herself speaking of the civilities that she received from King James;—you have the lady herself speaking of him during the service in Flanders; and I think, therefore, here the chain is complete, to show that there was a Major Galbraith in the army ; that that Major Galbraith married Miss Persse; and that he had served in Flanders.

Then the question is—Is that Major Galbraith. who so Married Miss Persse, and who so served in Flanders, a Scotchman ? That is tlie next thing in the chain. Now, here you have the evidence of the same Colonel Persse, who appears to be above all suspicion ; and his rank and station in society, if any thing can give your Lordships security for his speaking truth, do give you that security. He tells your Lordships that he had heard that he was a Scotchman ; and then he gave the best possible evidence that he was a Scotchman, for he spoke with the Scotch accent. Then, your Lordships have another witnesss, who tells you distinctly that he had it from the major himself, that he came from Scotland. Now, stopping here, it stands thus, that the testator, who lives in Scotland, speaks of a major who was in Ireland; and you have proved by these witnesses, that this major came from Scotland into Ireland. Your Lordships also will recollect, that the figure of this man is spoken of. He was a raw six feet high, and a very likely sort of person to have contracted matrimony in the manner in which he is reported. He entered into engagements with the lady against the will of her father, and it is perhaps probable that the lady would be more attracted by the six feet high man, than the father, who found he had nothing but his sword and his station. How is this man spoken of by another witness ? He is spoken of as a big Scotchman. Here your Lordships have strong evidence that thi« was the major that came from Scotland. The, Other witnesses, on both sides, tell your Lordships that this man had no connexions in Ireland,—»hat there was a mystery about his birth,-—that he was described as being descended from a hogshead of port wine, probably from his Hiking a large proportion of wine—in short, that there was a mystery about his birth. Is not that accounted for by the circumstance of his having come over from Scotland, and having settled in a country in which ha had no connexions. But it is said he may have come from Scotland, and he may be a major, and yet he may not be the cousin-gcrman of this testator. Then, my Lords, to show that he was connected with the Giilbraitbs of this family—and you have another fact which is extremely important, you have this man found with a field cloth, having upon it the arms of the Galbraiths, though, perhaps, not exactly painted as they ought to be ; but I think your Lordships will go along with me in this observation, that different herald painters would represent the Bume arms so differently, that you would hardly know them to be the ssme ; but, undoubtedly, there is such a resemblance between the arms of the family, and those painted upon this field cloth, which is described to have been in the possession of this person, as strongly shew that he claimed to be a member of that family. Now, I state to your Lordships all these circumstances, taken together, as constituting very cogent proof, particularly in the absence of there being uny other major. If any evidence had been put in, giving your Lordships any satisfactory reason to suppose that there was some other Irishman that answered all those different descriptions, then, as I have already stated to your Lordships, the presumption raised from the fuels I have, adverted to, would be immediately knocked to the ground. That, therefore, it is necessary to inquire into. Is there any other person who can be put in competition with this Major Gulbraith, or whose existence shews to you that this is not the man of whom this settler was speaking ? Now, my Lords, here are two persons put forward as being clothed with the character of major, for the purpose of shewing that no inference can be drawn from the fact of his being a major; because it is said there are other majors to whom that description would apply. The first is a Hugh Galbraith of Johnston, in the county of Longford. Now, I quite agree that there was certainly a military service existing in this country before the present militia. I believe there was no period of time, from the feudal times down to the present, in which, besides the standing army, there were not troops in which there were persons acting who were gentlemen in the country. It is rather a speculation; but I believe, that the persons forming part of that service, were, generally speaking, considerable land proprietors. Now, that by no means answers the description of this major; because I can find him in no higher situation than that of a tenant of some manor under my Lord Lanesborough, I do not find any person of that description, possessing that sort.
the Entailer, James Galbraith (I4290)

GALBRAITH FAMILY OF RAPHOE PARISH, DONEGAL IRELAND (1665-1720) Possible Ancestors of James Galbraith, born 1666, Immigrated to Pennsylvania in 1718

By Ross McDonough, The Red Tower, Clan Galbraith Association, Vol. XXXV, No. 4, ISSN 1059-4264, August 2014.

For some time I have been attempting to determine the Ulster ancestors of my immigrant ancestor James Galbraith b.1666, who came to Pennsylvania in 1718, along with his son, James, Jr., also my ancestor, and others. My work has included much correspondence with Bill Gilbreath, Clan Galbraith genealogist, Simon Parker Galbreath, keeper of the Clan Galbraith wills, as well as a lot of work on the internet. (Surprising what can be found there.)

Also, Nancy (who as always is a much better genealogist than I am) and I attended a week long genealogy class in Belfast last summer put on by the Ulster Historical Society and Ulster University. I found much of the information on this family there. (This is an annual event and I would highly recommend it.) The Foundation Executive Head and Research Director will put on a USA cross country day session trip in mid-March 2015 that I think would be worthwhile if one of the sessions turns out to be near where one lives.

Before the course in Belfast, we spent several days in Raphoe Parish in Donegal, which contains beautiful, fertile farmland. It made me wish my Dad could have seen it, since it is so different from the rough farm land he worked on in central Arkansas.

Like others, I have not been able to find proof as to the ancestry of James (1666), but have found info on a family in Raphoe parish that perhaps could be those ancestors. It includes Thomas, a head of household there in 1665, which would make him the right age to be the father of James (1666). Also, there are many first names in this family which are the same as those of the children of James (1666) and James, Jr., including the somewhat unusual name of Isabell, various spellings (see info below).

When James (1666) came to Lancaster County, Pennsylvania in 1718, he was a part of the settlers that renamed their township Donegal, with a part of that township later being renamed Raphoe. County Donegal has various baronies, including North Raphoe and South Raphoe. In North Raphoe Barony, there is Raphoe Parish which includes the town of Raphoe (all of this family's locations that I am writing about were in Raphoe Parish, Donegal, only a few miles from the town of Raphoe.) It is generally assumed that the 1718 immigrants came from Donegal and that seems to me to be a reasonable assumption.

There were three Galbraiths in a Raphoe barony in the 1630 muster roll, but it appears that while they were in the Barony of Raphoe, it is not likely they were in Raphoe Parish, and therefore perhaps were unlikely to be ancestors of this Raphoe Parish family. They were Andrew, John, and Alexander and since Andrew had the most weapons, I might guess he was the father, if they were not all brothers. I wonder if they lived through the Irish uprising that followed.

Thomas Galbraith appears in the 1665 Hearth Tax roll in Raphoe Parish, and again, since he is the right age to be the father of James (1666), I think he must be seriously considered as a possible father of James (1666), particularly since all of the research that I have seen has not turned up a specific known person likely to be his father.

In 1720, there is a will for Thomas Galbraith in Upper Cooladerry, Raphoe Parish, only a partial abstract available, which lists three brothers, James, Andrew, and Hugh, and an apparent sister, Isabella Clarke. Thomas would have to have been in his seventies in 1720 to be the father of James (1666). He must be a man of some substance since he leaves land in the will. He names his brother James as executor and since James (1666) was already in America in 1718, it seems unlikely they would be the same person.

In 1702 there was a Raphoe Parish reforestation document that generally lists one person as responsible for planting trees in various townlands. Included in the list is William Galbraith of Cooladerry. Also, Andrew Galbraith is listed for Beltany, which has the very interesting stone circle. There probably were other Galbraiths included in the "and partners" for some of the townlands.

Andrew Galbraith was appointed overseer of the Raphoe Parish roads in the early 1700's. And Andrew and William were "sidemen" at St. Eunan's Cathedral in Raphoe in the late 1600's.

Compare the first names above with James (1666) who had a son Andrew and a daughter Isabell. (Isabell does not seem to be a common name at this time, but was more common in the 1500's Galbraith era.) James, Jr. had sons William, Andrew and Thomas. He lived in Ireland until he was 15 and might he have named a son for his grandfather?

There is a persistent belief that the father of James (1666) was a John. It is interesting to note that a John Galbraith was paid in 1720 for work done on the bell in St. Eunan's. No idea who he was or even whether he lived in Raphoe Parish. To have been the father of James (1666) he would have had to have been in his 70's when paid for his bell work.

Was this Raphoe family from Scotland? Almost certainly so. Much of the land in Raphoe Parish appears to have belonged to the Church and Bishop Andrew Knox made a trip to Scotland in the early 1630's to find settlers for those lands. Knox had been a Bishop in Scotland before becoming Bishop of Raphoe.

Is it likely that they are descendants of the Culcreuch Galbraiths. I think so. I understand that DNA indicates the Pennsylvania Galbraiths were of the Balgair line, but I think I understand that the DNA results could indicate they are of the Balgair line, but of a different line down from their ancestors. A possibility of that DNA connection is Humphrey of Glin dying 1554, probably father of James of Glin, dying 1587 with children Thomas and Jonet. Absolutely no proof of any connection to Thomas in 1665 Raphoe Parish Hearth Tax, but indicative of the possibility that the DNA of my ancestors could come from the ancestors of the Balgair line.

As an interesting (to me) aside there is a 1617 will of an Isobell Galbraith, widow of Thomas Mitchell and sister to Margaret Galbraith, who died just north of Stirling in 1616. In the list of Raphoe Parish 1665 Hearth taxes there are four Mitchells listed, as is Thomas Galbraith. Was it likely Bishop Knox recruited Mitchells and Galbraiths from the same area to settle on Raphoe Parish land? Finally in a list of 33 family names of "main" Scotch-Irish settlers in 1718 Chester County, PA in addition to the James Galbraiths there is Mitchell, with one of the two Mitchells named Thomas. Likely these Mitchells went to PA with James (1666) and if so were they the Mitchells of Raphoe Parish?

I hope that somebody who reads this might know something more about this Raphoe family or will do further research as to whether these Raphoe Parish Galbraiths might be ancestors of the James Galbraith (1666) Pennsylvania line.

(See Histories Section, Number 15 for Article on The 1718 Galbraiths by Dave Colwell that appeared in an earlier edition of The Red Tower. I have elected to enter on this website the forebears of James Galbraith (1666) as reported in Dave Colwell's well documented work. This takes us back to James Galbraith of Culreuch the 10th Galbraith Chief. Hopefully, additional DNA testing by male Galbraith descendants and DNA from one of those early forebears will confirm this lineage. Note to File - JP Rhein)

Galbraith, James (I0097)

PRONI T808/IJ687
This is a partial transcript of the will of Jeanne Galbraith, alias Cunningham, of
Dowish, Raymoghie parish, Raphoe barony, Co. Donegal, widow of Lt. Col. Robert
Galbraith. This will was made 20th March 1673, and proved in the prerogative court,
10th Feb. 1675.

In it, she mentions the following persons.
Her son James Galbraith, now dead.
Her daughter Rebecca, wife of Andrew Knox Esq. of Rathmullen, and their 2nd son,
Robert Knox.
Her daughter Anne, widow of Capt. James Stewart, and their children, Archibald, '.
William and Rebecca Stewart. __ ._~~\.. .... \.;t.(\:v..J <1 -",{ct-t ic-Hill
Execurors were William Stewart of Balliaghan, ~chael Sampson of Castle-Iteach,
and Robert Boyle Esq., of Moyle. '------~.
Overseer was Andrew Knox, Esq., of'Rathmullen.r- .c....~h v;:', (J...-_'
Witnesses were N. Cunningham, John Kennedy and Robert Fleming.
Cunningham, Jean (I4307)
"Johannes Spangler came to the Port of Philadelphia, August 17, 1731, from the Palatinate, in the ship "Samuel" Hugh Piercy, Master, was no exception to the rule. He and his descendants have had their full share of the solid, every-day work in making the Commonweaalth what it is." (Source - "Commemorable Biographical Record of Central Pennsylvania", Volume 1, Beers & Co., 1898.)


The present Emanuel United Church of Christ of Jacksonville, Marion Township, Centre County, was organized about 1812 by Rev. Henry Rassman as a Union Church with trustees Henry Hoy and John Yarger. It was composed of German Reformed and Lutherans. The two denominations unitedly elected elders and deacons and attended services together whenever a pastor was available.

In 1816 Henry Hoy deeded to Melchior Dunkle and Joseph Baker, as trustees, one acre of land for considedration of $12. It was expressly stipulated in the deed that the ground be used "for German Calvinistic and Lutheran Evangelical purposes, and converted to no other use whatsoever." They bujilt a small log meeting-house in which they worshiped until 1851 when a new church was built.

In the spring of 1852 the Lutherans withdrew, leaving it a German Reformed Church. Three lots of ground were purchased in 1874 and the present brick structure was erected adjacent to the origtinal churchyard. The German Reformed Church as later known as Emanuel Evangelical and Reformed Churc. It was renamed Emanuel United Church of Christ in 1957.

This record of the church's baptisms for the period 1812 to 1859 was located and turned over to the Centre County Library and Historical Museum in 2002. The header at the top of page 1 in the original register (in German) states that the congregation "in Nittany Valley, Centre County, was retained by Rev. Henry Rassman, preacher there from 12 May Anno Domini 1811."

The information given above as historical background is taken from "The Cemeteries of Marion and Walker Townships, Centre County, Pennsylvania," (1999), page 13, published by the Centre County Genealogical Society - eds. of the Publications Committee being Ellen Copper, Dorothy Bordner and Edward Keller.

"The following was taken from the records of Nittany Valley Union (Lutheran - Reformed) Church in Marion Township, Centre County, Pennsylvania. It was translated by Jack Cower and typed by
Fred Houtz in 2003.

Catharina, born August 21, 1813, baptized September 26, 1813, daughter of Johannes and Elisabeth Spagler. Sponsors Jacob Snyder and Elisabeth Spangler.

Elisabeth, born June 23, 1815, baptized August 27, 1815, daughter of Johannes and Elisabeth Spangler. Sponsors the parents.

Emeleisen, born January 8, 1837, baptized July 16, 1839, son of Michael and Babara Spangler. Sponsors the parents.
This may be Ann Elizabeth, born February 28, 1837.

No name, month born not shown, 10th day 1838, baptized March 24, 1839, child of Michael and Barbara Spangler. No sponsors listed.
This is James born October 10, 1838.

M.aria Caroline, born January 27, 1842, baptized August 28, 1842, daughter of Michael and Barbara Spangler, Sponsors the parents."

This make a compelling case that Johannes Spangler is the father of Michael Spangler married to Barbara McKinney who later came to Clarion County, Pennsylvania. (Note to File - JP

"Col. Jackson Levi Spangler, the sixth generation from Johannes, the elder, is the eldest son of John Spangler and Annie Berger, and was born in Adamstown, Snyder County, Pennsylvania, September 27, 1849." (Source - "Commemorable Biographical Record of Central Pennsylvania", Volume 1, Beers & Company, 1898). I have not been able to identify the son of Johannes Spangler and the line to Col.
Spangler. The following is listed for future reference and follow-up. (Note to File - JP Rhein)

Commemorative Biographical Record of Central Pennsylvania: Including the
Counties of Centre, Clearfield, Jefferson and Clarion: Containing Biographical
Sketches of Prominent and Representative Citizens, Etc.
Chicago: J. H. Beers, 1898.


JACKSON LEVI SPANGLER, of Bellefonte, Centre county. Achievements more than words, things done rather than things said, have constituted the contribution of
the German element of our population to the great political and industrial fabric which has been reared upon the foundations laid by William Penn for the
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania more than two hundred years ago.

Johannes Spangler, who came to the port of Philadelphia August 17, 1731, from the Palatinate, in the ship "Samuel," Hugh Piercy master, was no exception to
the rule. He and his descendants have had their full share of the solid, every-day work in making the commonwealth what it is.

Col. Jackson Levi Spangler, the sixth generation from Johannes, the elder, is the eldest son of John Spangler and Annie Berger, and was born in Adamsburg,
Snyder Co., Penn., September 27, 1849. His early life was without special incident. He attended the common schools of Snyder county until 1860, when his
father removed to Centre county, and has resided at Centre Hall, in one of the most beautiful valleys of Pennsylvania, from that time until this, except during
his official term as sheriff of Centre county, to which office he was elected in the year 1877. Col. Spangler attended the common schools in Centre county and
was there fitted for Dickinson Seminary at Williamsport, from which institution he graduated with honors in June, 1871. His relations with the seminary have
been very cordial ever since. He delights in attending its commencements, and at the last commencement was the alumni orator, and entertained a large audience
by his graphic and vivid description of the development of this portion of Pennsylvania.

He entered the office of Orvis & Alexander in the latter part of 1871, pursued the study of the law diligently and with success, and was admitted to the Bar of Centre County in January, 1874. He at once took his rank in the legal profession, and his abilities were so quickly recognized that in the summer of the same year he was nominated for the office of District Attorney of
Centre county, and was elected by a large majority in the fall of the year. He filled the office ably and acceptably to the people for the full term of three
years, and would have undoubtedly been renominated and re-elected in 1877 but for the fact that he declined a renomination, apparently for the reason that his
father was a candidate for sheriff in that year. Col. Spangler continued the practice of his profession, after his official term ceased, for a number of
years alone, and subsequently, as the senior member of the firm of Spangler & Hewes. He had high standing at the Bar, and was an especially persuasive
advocate, his genial disposition and temper making him an especial favorite with the jury. During his professional life he was also interested in local
politics, in reference to which he was always an influential adviser in his party. He was the chairman of the Democratic County Committee during the
celebrated campaign of 1880, when Gen. Hancock received a majority of 996-an unusual one in Centre county, and larger than that of any other Presidential
nominee since. In 1890 he was the cordial choice of his county for the nomination of Congress in the Twenty-eight District, and would have undoubtedly
been nominated at the conference of the representatives of the several counties, but the fact that his nice sense of honor forbade his making an arrangement
which he thought was not in accordance with an implied promise he had made. His mental equipment and education would have fitted him admirably as a successful
candidate of his party, and if nominated, he would undoubtedly have been elected, and those who knew him best are satisfied that the district would have
been worthily represented, in case of his election.

Col. Spangler's services in the National Guard of Pennsylvania have been valuable and almost unique. In 1877, at the time of the great railroad riots
which convulsed the country, he accompanied Gen. Beaver, then commanding the 5th Division of the National Guard, as a volunteer aide, when the Division was
called into action. The headquarters were established at Altoona, where there was great unrest and much dissatisfaction on the part of the employees of the
Pennsylvania railroad. A careful investigation of the situation revealed the fact that the ferment was largely maintained by the demagogical appeals of a man
who had lately come into the community, and was little known, but who had exerted a great influence by his street-corner addresses to the crowds which
assembled to hear him. The civil powers seemed to be paralyzed, and neither mayor nor sheriff would undertake to arrest the disturber of the peace. At the
request of Gen. Beaver, Col. Spangler (then without military rank) and Major M'Farlane were sworn in by the mayor as deputy policemen. The second day after
their arrival at Altoona, they located this man in a saloon, had a carriage driven to the door, arrested him, hurried him to the carriage and drove to
Hollidaysburg, the county seat of Blair county, before the fact of his arrest became known. From that day the spirit of unrest at Altoona decreased, and it
was not long before complete order was restored. In recognition of his services, Gen. Beaver recommended him for aide upon his staff, with the rank of
major, which was promptly confirmed by Gen. Hartranft, then Governor of the Commonwealth.

Immediately after the unprecedented disaster caused by the flood at Johnstown in the latter part of May, 1889, Col. Spangler, who was in that part of Cambria
county, hurriedly repaired to Johnstown in company with Gen. Hastings, and was so overwhelmed with the necessity for prompt action on the part of all who could
render service to the afflicted people there, that he remained upon the ground and volunteered to render such service as he might, in the distribution of
provisions to those who were in need. He organized the Commissary Department, and was so efficient in the discharge of his duties connected therewith that, in
recognition of his services, he was appointed by Gen. Beaver, then Governor of the State, assistant commissary-general, with the rank of lieutenant colonel.
Most men discharge their duties in National Guard service because of rank previously bestowed; in Col. Spangler's case, however, the services were
rendered, and the rank followed in recognition of them. So much impressed were the officers and men who were on duty in connection with the Commissary
Department at Johnstown, that at the conclusion of their term of service they presented Col. Spangler with a handsome sword as recognition of their
appreciation of the ability with which he had met all the requirements of the position.

In the fall of 1887, Col. Spangler became acquainted (through several gentlemen who had the control of a number of options upon coal lands in the
northwestern corner of Cambria county) with the marvelous mineral wealth of this region. He visited this locality, and was impressed with its extent and value.
As a result of it, he enlisted the interests of others in such a way as to induce an effort to secure control of a large body of coal in this neighborhood.
As a result, the Blubaker Coal Co. was formed, of which he may be said to be the original founder. Others united with him, and the business was followed so
intelligently and persistently that the company became the owner of some 12,000 acres of the best coal land in this region. Col. Spangler has continued as a
director of the Blubaker Coal Co. since its organization, and is one of the prominent stockholders. As a result of this business connection, he became
interested in the Sterling Coal Co., and when the business interests of the latter company increased in the region to such an extent as to demand active and
energetic supervision, Col. Spangler was appointed general manager, and has resided in Hastings, acting in that capacity for several years. He had
considerable experience at Bellefonte in the development of real estate, and became interested in this region in the Hastings Improvement Co., and was one of
the original and energetic movers in the development of the Spangler Improvement Co. In recognition of the services rendered by him as treasurer and trustee of
the latter company, village on the West branch of the Susquehanna, which is destined to be the center of a larger number of coal operations than any
locality outside of Houtzdale basin, was named "Spangler."

On March 24, 1890, Col. Spangler was married to Mrs. Eliza Wagner Holliday, and enjoys the domestic comfort to which he is entitled in his elegant and
hospitable home at Bellefonte. Although so largely interested in this locality,and spending most of his time either at Hastings or Spangler, he maintains his
residence in Bellefonte. We are persuaded that to no one man does northern Cambria county owe more of its recent development than to the subject of this
Family F3330
Leader-Vindicator, New Bethlehem, Pa. Thurs., Oct. 12, 1932. p2
The following article was under the headline ?Retired R. R. Men Honored at Sligo?.

John H. McKinney

John H. McKinney, one of the most familiar figures who ever switched a car on the Sligo branch becomes a member of the Roll of Honor of the Pennsylvania Railroad today after 43 years of service. Mr. McKinney has worked 32 years on the branch, sometimes as conductor and sometimes as brakeman. He is the only man who was ever promoted to the position of conductor with rights only on the Sligo branch, a one-crew piece of J H. McKinney railroad ten miles long operated by the Allegheny division.

When business wanted an additional train a night run was put on and he was placed in charge, other times he was a member of Pete Colwell's famous million dollar crew.

John McKinney was born Jan. 10, 1862, at Brinkerton, 5 miles of over the hill from Leatherwood, on a farm his father, Anthony McKinney, inherited from his father, who joined the covered wagon Parade and emigrated from Centre county in the early 40s that he might find a place to build a home to call his own. John was two years old when his father went to war.

"Although I was only three when he came back badly wounded in 1865, I remember his return distinctly, particularly the bluecoat and the brass buttons." He stayed on the farm and helped his father, who was unable to work, until his three brothers grew up. He never strayed far from home, but the lack of employment took him to DuBois in the fall of 1880, where he thought he would go to work into the woods. After carefully surveying the employment situation at DuBois, he took the train for Driftwood. Martin Falen, supervisor of the Low Grade branch, came into the coach and sat beside him. "I told him I was looking for a job and he asked me if I would work if given a chance and I asked for the chance. He put me on the work train with Foreman Dan Nolen. I worked as a laborer a short while, when Mr. Nolan made me ?cookie? in the camp cars.

"I quit in 1883 and went home to run my grandfather?s farm, near Rimersburg I stayed on the farm four years and went back to Mr. Nolan and worked for him as laborer two years. During the Johnstown flood, when the Low Grade [sp], A. B. Weed gave me a job braking. I worked on the ?grade? up to the time I transferred to the Sligo branch, 32 years ago and have been here ever since."

Mr. McKinney is known to every person along the line. He was a good employee and always work on his train as though it were his own.

In interviewing retired men the majority are forced to refer to the family Bible when asked their wedding date, but none ever forgets his best girl?s maiden name. Mr. McKinney knew the date by a queer coincidence. He was married to Miss Rosa L. Stewart of New Bethlehem at East Brady, Sept., 30, 1885, the last day marriage was lawful without a license in Pennsylvania. "We had heard that the licenses were going to cost 50 cents October 1 and as many people didn't have that much to spare in those days we hurried up and got married when it didn't cost anything."

Mr. and Mrs. Kinney had nine children, all living, and most of them connected with the railroad. Fred, the oldest boy, a hostler of Sligo, is recovering from injuries received last November. Mrs. G. C. Stewart of Callensburg, Mrs. Leo Bishop, wife of conductor, Conemaugh division, Pittsburgh; Mrs. Frank Hassen, wife of engineer, Reynoldsville; John B. of Sligo, former clerk and fireman on the P. R. R.; Mrs. C. W. Cole, wife of fireman, Sligo; Mrs. J P. Rhine of Pittsburgh, the latter two girls are twins, Harold B., on his father's farm and Helen at home.

Mr. McKinney has a beautiful home at Sligo and a large farm well-stocked with cattle and valuable horses, a mile from town. He plans to take life easy the remainder of his days, and may they be many. 
McKinney, John Henry (I0003)
Obit from The Derrick, Oil City, Franklin- Clarion, PA, July 28, 1973: Mrs. Hoover, Rimersburg Woman, dies. RIMERSBURG - Mrs. Blanche B. Hoover, 76, of Rimersburg died Friday morning in Chicora Medical Center after an extended illness. She was born July 14, 1897, in Butler County, a daughter of the late Elmer and Louella Stewart Walls. She married Bird Hoover who preceded her in death in 1955. A resident of Rimersburg for the past eight years, Mrs. Hoover had previously resided in Squirrel Hill, Clarion County. She was a member of Oakwood United Presbyterian Church, Squirrel Hill. Surviving are: one sister, Mrs. Howard (Ethel) Ferguson of Lima, Ohio; two brothers, Clyde Walls of New Bethlehem RD and Raymond Walls of Apollo, and several nieces and nephews. In addition to her husband, she was preceded in death by one sister, Miss Mabel Walls, and one brother, Frank Walls. Friends will be received any time at the J. D. Miller Funeral Home, Rimersburg, where the family will received friends 2 to 4 and 7 to 9 pm today. Funeral services will be held at 2 pm Sunday in the funeral home with Rev. David L. Cook, pastor of the Rimersburg United Presbyterian Church, officiating. Interment will be in Squirrel Hill Cemetery, Clarion County.

(Above information furnished by Linda Walls) 
Walls, Blanche Bessie (I0357)
Obit: Apollo - Raymond S. Walls, a native Rimersburg RD 1 resident, died March 6, 1979, in Clearfield Hospital. A Kiski Valley resident most of his adult life, he was born July 21, 1903, in New Athens, Clarion County, a son of Elmer and E. Louella Stewart Walls. He was married to the former Margaret Hetrick, who died Nov. 17, 1976. He is survived by: a brother, Clyde G., New Bethlehem RD3; a sister, Mrs. Howard (Ethel) Ferguson of Lima, Ohio; Mr. and Mrs. Alan Bowser, Leechburg RD, who made their home with him; and several nieces and nephews. He was preceded in death by a brother, Frank, and two sisters, Mabel and Mrs. Blanche Hoover. Funeral services were held at 11 a.m. Thursday at the Bodenhorn and Shaffer Funeral Home, Apollo, with the Rev. Carl Holm officiating. Interment was in the Rimersburg cemetery.

(Above information furnished by Linda Walls)
Walls, Raymond Seth (I1570)
Obit: Clarion Democrat May 25, 1916: Amos Stewart, one of the older citizens of the southwestern part of the county, died at the home of his son, Willis G. Stewart, in Toby Twp., on Saturday, May 20, 1916. Mr. Stewart was about 73 years old and many years was one of the prominent residents of Perry Township, but since the death of his wife several years ago has been making his home with his children. Funeral services were conducted at the home of W.G. Stewart in Toby township on Monday morning at 9 o'clock and the interment was made in the Concord cemetery. The deceased is survived by three sons: W. G. and James, of Rimersburg, Sam'l, a son of Mr. and Mrs. S. M. Moore, Mrs. Ed McClain of Rimersburg.

(Above information furnished by Linda Walls)
Stewart, Amos (I0421)
Oil City Derrick July 16, 1959: Parker Pair Observes 60th Anniversary:

Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Stewart of Parker RD 1 celebrated their 60th wedding anniversary Thursday, July 16, quietly at their home in Perry Township, Clarion County. Elizabeth Bartley, daughter of Samuel and Susan McCoy Bartley, and Samuel Stewart, son of Amos and Rebecca Blair Stewart were married in Dutch Hill July 16, 1899. They are the parents of three children, two of whom are deceased. A son, Lloyd B. Stewart, and wife live with them. They have two randchildren and three great-grandchildren. Mr. Stewart is a retired farmer. Both Mr. and Mrs. Stewart are members of Concord Presbyterian Church in Perry Township.
Family F0325
Presbyterian Marriages Performed by Rev. James Montgomery, 1842-1868

Transcribed by Dr. James H. Sterrett and published in the Western PA Genealogical Society Quarterly, Vol. 9, No. 3 (Feb. 1983), pg. 121. No copyright infringement intended.

The Presbyterian Church of Clarion was organized in that town on May 15, 1841, with sixteen charter members. These original members were Hugh A. Thompson and Elizabeth his wife; Thomas Sutton; John McConaughey; Abram Richards and Rebecca his wife; John Clark and Mary his wife; Elizabeth Kelly; and Lucinda Hamilton.

The first resident pastor was Rev. James Montgomery. He was born in Ireland in 1811 and graduated from Washington and Jefferson College in 1838 and Western Seminary in 1841. He was ordained by the Presbytery of Clarion in 1842 and was pastor of this church from 1842 until 1868 when he was released from the pastorate because of ill health. He was also part-time pastor of the New Rehobeth Presbyterian Church in Clarion County from 1845 to 1868. He died in the town of Clarion on August 10, 1871.

The attached list of marriages (James Pollock and Elizabeth Stewart on July 30,l842)were those performed by him in Clarion County from 1842 to 1868, the twenty-six years that he was a minister in the area. A great many of these marriages are of residents of other counties.

The above information on the church and Rev. Montgomery was taken from A History of the Presbytery of Clarion of the Presbyterian Church of the of the United States of America, by Rev. J. Wallace Fraser, 1939.

Permission to publish this material has been given by the Presbyterian Historical Society, 425 Lombard Street, Philadelphia, PA 19147, where the original records of this church are held.

Family F3372
Sponsors were Alexander Klinger and wife, Magdalena. 
Emerick, Alexander (I1563)
The National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution Volume
page 59
Miss Julia Eleanor Mcfadden.
DAR ID Number: 162189
Born in Corvallis, Ore.
Descendant of Lieut. William Stewart, as follows:
1. William Stewart McFadden (1847-1916) m. 2d 1889 Sallie Lane (b.
2. Thomas McFadden (1822-98) m. 1845 Alicia Chapman (1826-63).
3. James A. McFadden (1787-1866) m. 1812 Margaret Stewart (1795-1881).
4. Galbraith Stewart (1766-1848) m. 1791 Elizabeth Scott (1768-1850).
5. William Stewart m. 1760 Mary Gass (b. 1742).
William Stewart served as lieutenant and adjutant in Capt. William
Donaldson's company, 2d battalion, under Col. John Davis, Cumberland
[p.59] County militia, 1777. He was born, 1738, in Ireland; died in
Mercer County, Pa.
McFadden, Thomas (I0801)
Olive Maude Hartman February 27, 1965 Licking Twp., Clarion Co.,Pa. New Bethlehem, Pa.

Burial Cemetery Lot Section Undertaker
3/2/1965 Mt. Zion

Daughters; Lottie Belle Dixon, Mrs. Orland (Myrna) McCall, Mrs. Clarence (Grace) Fagley, Mrs. Robert (Elsie) Thompson, Mrs. Paul *Dee) Best and Mrs. Joe (Evelyn) Neely Sons; Russell and Herman Hartman One son, Arnold, and one daughter, Mable, preceded her

dob - 1-3-1876 Daughter of Washington and Pauline Whitmore Reichard She was married to David Hartman
who died in 1952
Reichard, Olive Maude (I4208)
Mary Louise (Lawson) Jones December 5, 1990 Lawsonham Jefferson, Colo. 66 yrs

Burial Cemetery Lot Section Undertaker
04-1-1991 Lawsonham, Pa.

1 daughter, Mary Evelyn (Jones) Tady (Mrs. Paul M. Tady) DOB.. November 2, 1924
Daughter of Theodore Hartford and Evelyn Sarah (Stewart) Lawson.
Married Robert Dale Jones on January 27, 1950 in Alhambra, Los Angeles, California.

Lawson, Mary Louise (I4134)
15  Campbell, John Addison Jr. (I9604)
16  Yost, Thompson Werntz (I9744)
17 George and Ruth married on December 28, 1936. After their honeymoon trip to Gettysburg and Washington D. C. they moved in with George's parents on the farm. Ruth taught 3rd grade at Porter Township Consolidated until the end of the school year.

George got a job with Penn Power out of Clarion so they moved to a rental house near Limestone they called "the Eaker House". Mary Jane was born at home on 2/21/38. They moved to "the Deitz house" in 1939 to get even closer to Clarion for George's job. George bought some chickens so Ruth would "get out of the house." When World War II started copper was in demand for the war so there was not enough available to make electric lines. George heard from a friend that General Electric in Erie was hiring so he went there to work while he rented a room from a family. He was really lonely and when it was time for the corn harvest he quit his job and came home to help on the family farm.

In 1942 George went to Greenville with his electric lineman tools to get a job building the new "Army Camp" at Reynolds. He stayed at a local farm until his brother-in-law, Bob Blair came to get a job as a carpenter and then his other brother-in-law, Jay Myers came to get a job as a carpenter. All three then roomed with the Morrison family on Rt. 18. When the "Army Camp" was finished Bob Blair joined the service and George went to work at Butler at the Power Station for 4-6 weeks. While in Butler George stayed with his cousin Geraldine. A Major Ponder from Reynolds Army Camp called George to come back to the Camp to work maintenance.

In May 1943 George rented the upstairs of a house from Elma Reichard near Fredonia and then moved Mary Jane and Ruth to be with him.

In April 1944 they purchased their store from the Winters family. It had previously been a small ice cream plant and ice cream parlor. During this time George was still working at the Reynolds Army Camp on the 4 - 11p.m. shift so Ruth and Mary Jane ran the store while he was at work.

George was drafted in May or June of 1945 at age 29 (the cut off age was 30). He was sent to Camp Hill, Pa. and then sent to Camp Clayborn, Louisiana for basics. While he was at Camp Clayborn he had a tooth pulled, his jaw came out of joint as had happened in the past. This time his muscles were stretched enough even a large yawn would unhinge his jaw so he was given a medical discharge and sent home in August of 1945. He was hired back on the maintenance crew at Camp Reynold until Camp Reynolds was dismantled in 1945. From the close out sale at Camp Reynolds he purchased the Oak butcher block and a large table for the meat room at the store, wool blankets, large electric grill and metal bed frames.

Over the years improvements were made to the store: They dug a basement for a furnace in 1945, put rental meat lockers in the old ice cream hardening room in 1946, black topped the area around the store in 1949 and finished the upstairs in 1950. For a short while after the war Harry Zuschlagh installed his barber chair at one end of the store. 
Family F1228
18 In 1638 James and Robert's younger brother, Humphrey, signed the funeral certificate of Sir Patrick Acheson, Archibald's son, "as being his kinsman." Some years later Sir George Acheson, second son of Archibald, served as overseer for the will of James Galbraith of Ramoran, the son of Robert Galbraith of Dowish. All are clues that there was a bond or family connection between those Achesons and Galbraiths. Exactly what that bond was had yet to be discovered.  Galbraith, Humphrey (I4245)
19 Jane was born on April 22, 1922 in New Bethlehem, PA.

Some of Jane's chores were doing the milking and driving the tractor when they were bringing in the hay.

Jane and her sister Ethel Maye would make faces at each other so Lulu would sit them down and tell them to make faces at each other till she told them to quit. George, her brother, always enjoyed teasing Jane.

Jane attended the Porter Township High School in Squirrel Hill, Pennsylvania. She walked to school and graduated in the Class of 1939.

Jane's first job was working at a gas station that had a store in it. She helped with the station and also took care of the owner's children because he had lost his wife and needed the help.

Jane loved to roller skate and would go all the time. One particular night she was skating and came over to talk to someone she knew. His back was towards her so she put her hand on his shoulder and started to say something. When he turned around she was surprised it was someone else because she thought it was a "Bob" she knew. She apologized for it and continued skating. The person she tapped on the shoulder happened to be Harry Blair and he went up to her later on and asked her if she had wanted something. Jane and Harry began dating after that. She was a very good skater and she taught Harry to skate backwards.

One night after double dating Harry and Jane were dropped off at Jane's house by Harry's Uncle Shorty Blair. Shorty was going to take his date home and then come back for Harry. There was a bad snowstorm and it was getting late and Shorty had not returned yet so Harry told Jane to go upstairs and go to bed and he would wait for his ride. Jane told him that the hired hand was not there and that he could go up and sleep there but he said he couldn't do that and that he would just sit on the couch and wait. Well, he laid down on the couch and was smoking a cigarette with his ashtray sitting on his chest and he fell asleep. A short time later he was awaken by Lulu Polliard throwing a bucket of water on him. The couch had started smoldering and burnt the Indian blanket and a hole in the center cushion of the couch. Lulu said, "Now you get upstairs and get to bed." Needless to say Harry felt really embarrassed to come downstairs the next morning. Frank Polliard always carried that blanket in his car after that. Harry always thought it was for a reminder.

Another time Jane and Harry went to the Stoneboro Fair with Jane's parents. Harry and Frank were outside and Frank handed him a twenty-dollar bill. Harry said he had money, but Frank said, "If you are going to the Fair you have to treat your date to a good time."

One of Jane's teachers was Miss Florence (Ruth) King. A church activity came up and Jane and her sister Ethel Maye thought they would fix their brother George up with Miss King. When George heard what Jane and Ethel Maye was trying to do he said, "If I wanted to make any dates I will make them myself." Needless to say he kept that date and she later became his wife.

Jane had a pen pal from 1939 to 1945. Her name was Ria de Ruiter and she was from Leiden, Holland.

Jane had asthma all her adult life. Her father also had a very bad case of it.

While Harry was in the service Jane did ironing at home. In later years when the children were in school she worked at Montgomery Wards, Sears and then Social Security.

From Obituary:

Mrs. Jane Idella Blair, 59, of 107 Chippewa Drive, Butler, a former New Bethlehem resident, died at 7:55 PM Monday in Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh.

Born, April 22, 1922, in New Bethlehem, she was a daughter of Frank and Lulu McDonald Polliard.

She was employed as a clerk with the Social Security Administration at National Underground Storage in Boyers.

Mrs. Blair was a member of Hill United Presbyterian Church and Gamble Sunday School Class of the church.

She was also a member of Maqueda Chapter Order of Eastern Star of Butler.

Surviving are her husband, Harry E. Blair; four daughters, Mrs. Raymond (Janet) Campbell and Marilyn Blair, both of Butler, Mrs. Joseph (Elaine) Stephenson of Prospect, and Linda Blair of Firestone, Col.; one son, Larry Blair of Phoenix, Arizona; and six grandchildren.

Also surviving are: her mother, Mrs. Lulu Polliard of Rimersburg; a brother, George T. Polliard of Fredonia; a sister, Mrs. Jay (Ethel Maye) Myers of Sligo; and several nieces and nephews.

Friends will be received from 2 to 4 P.M. and 7 to 9 PM today at the Thompson-Miller Funeral Home Inc., 124 E. North Street, Butler.

Funeral Services will be held at 10:30 am Thursday at the funeral home with Rev. C. Kenneth Hall of Hill United Presbyterian Church officiating.

Private committal services will be held in Squirrel Hill Cemetery in New Bethlehem.

The family requests memorial contributions be made to Butler County Unit of the American Cancer Society, North McKean Street, Butler, Pa. 16001 
Polliard, Jane Idella (I3928)
20 One of George's chores as a young boy was to fill the coal bucket in the cellar of "the summer house" and carry it up the outside steps and into the kitchen. He remembers carrying this bucket on very cold, icy days when he was barely strong enough to lift the bucket. However, there was one reward for this task, he often napped behind the coal stove where it was warm and out of the way.

Another of George's chores as a young boy was to bring the cows in from the pasture. Of course they wouldn't always cooperate, especially when the horses got mixed in with the cows and of course there was often more interesting things going on at home that he was afraid he was missing. He remembers one time coming home without the cows to ask his mother for help. She had company, but went with him to get the cows, but let him know the whole way there and back home that she was not happy about the situation.

Frank and Lulu's house was apparently a very popular place to visit. George talked about loading the buggy with food and a change of clothes so they could visit friends and family right after church because if they went home after church company would often appear and they would not be able to continue with their plans.

Lulu was a very good cook and housekeeper. She always washed clothes on Monday, ironed on Tuesday, scrubbed the kitchen chairs and floor on Wednesday, cleaned the upstairs on Thursdays, cleaned the downstairs on Fridays and baked 8 pies and 8 loaves of bread on Saturday. When she was first married she had to bake in "the out oven" which was a wood fired oven built outside.

Lulu always had a crock of buckwheat pancake batter starter sitting on the cellar steps. One day George and his sister Jane decided to have a pancake eating contest. Lulu kept making pancakes and Jane and George kept eating away. George got full before Jane did but wasn't about to let his sister win so he started hiding his pancakes on a ledge under the table.

Family and friends often joined the Polliards on a Sunday afternoon to help them break wild horses.

George's biggest adventure as a young man was his trip to the "Century of Progress Exposition" in Chicago in 1933. He traveled to the fair with Chubb Chandler, Blair Henry and his cousin Don Phillips in a $12 car owned by his cousin Don Phillips. Each boy paid Don $5 for the ride. George had earned his $5 by raising and selling a pig. The car had a trundle seat so there was not much interior room. Don did all the driving so they remaining three took turns riding in the one remaining interior seat or the two seats in the exterior trundle seat. They slept along the way on blankets beside the car. After the Exposition they decided they wanted to return home by a different route so they could see Canada and Niagara Falls. Don agreed take to his car the longer route only after obtaining an extra $.50 from the other three passengers.

George was a member of the Eureka Lodge 290 in Greenville; Scottish Rite Valley of New Castle; and Zem Zem Temple, Erie.

Record of Deeds for the "store" property

Orrie O Wagner to Fred R. Corbett, Vengold Ice Cream, recorded Dec. 16, 1930
Vengold Dairy Products Inc. to Clyde E. Winters, recorded April 26, 1934
Clyd E. Winters to George T. Polliard & Florence R. Polliard, recorded April 27, 1944 
Polliard, George Terrah (I3924)
21 "Calvin Augustus Craig, third son of Washington and Nancy (Thompson) Craig, was born in Clarion county December 7, 1833. At an early age he gave evidence of an unusually active and studious mind, and, with only the advantages of the public schools, made rapid progress in learning, soon mastering the branches there taught. He was a careful reader, profiting by what he read, and was more intelligent and cultivated than many who possess all the advantages of a collegiate course. In the fall of 1858 he graduated from Duff's Commercial College, Pittsburgh, Pa., having dedermined to devote himself to a business career, for which he was eminently fitted.

Afterwards, in the spring of 1859, he spent some time in traveling in the South and Southwest, with a view to enlarging his knowledge by coming in contact with the citizens of these localities. Rev. James S. Elder (now pastor of the Presbyterian Church of Clarion), his friend and pastor, in the address delivered at Colonel Craig's funeral, says of this trip:
" His opinions and criticisms showed how closely and narrowly he scanned the cus¬toms and views of the people among whom he sojourned, and proved him to be a shrewd and careful observer. He closely scrutinized tbe workings and influence of the institu¬tion of slavery. His observations, confirming what every intelligent man knows to be true, tbat whoever seeks to degrade the low himself must sink. . . . . He had witnessed the evil workings of slavery himself, and ever afterwards cherished an increased antipathy to the inhuman institution."
On his return from this trip he engaged in lumbering, afterwards engaging in the mercantile business with his father, at Greenville, Clarion county. His success in both these enterprises showed him eminently fitted for a business career. But when the tocsin of war rang through the land, his soul was filled with patriotic ardor, and he at once enlisted in Captain A. A. McKnight's company of three months men, and at the close of that term of service he returned home and recruited a company in Clarion county for Colonel McKnight's regiment, which company was known as Company" C," of the One Hundred and Fifth Pennsylvania Volunteers, his commission as captain bearing date of September 6, 1861. On the 29th of May he was promoted to the lieutenant ¬colonelcy, made vacant by the resignation of Colonel Corbet, and to colonel, May 4, 1863, upon the death of the gallant McKnight, his friend and cousin, whom he deeply mourned. In asking his promotion, General Graham, commanding the First Brigade, First Division of the Third Corps, to which the One Hundred and Fifth was attached, wrote to Governor Curtin as follows:
"Colonel A. A. McKnight, of the 105th Regiment Pa. Vols., having been killed while gallantly leading his men in a charge against the enemy, on which occasion Lieu¬tenant-Colonel Calvin A. Craig succeeded him in command, and behaved with equal coolness and courage, I consider it a duty to the service to recommend that Lieutenant Colonel Craig be promoted to the vacancy occasioned by the death of the heroic Mc¬Knight. In soliciting this promotion, I am influenced alone by a desire to keep up the high standard of the 105th Regiment, one of the noblest regiments in the United States service. "

That he was worthy of this confidence and capable of filling this responsible position, the conduct of Colonel Craig on many desperately fought fields bore witness! His heart was ever true to his country; his letters to his friends all breathed of this devotion to the cause for which he was fighting. With him, duty was a watchword and duty to his country paramount to all other considerations. This is exemplified in the following extract from a letter received from him by the writer, just after the fall of Colonel McKnight, and his own promotion:
"When I entered the army, during the three months service as a private, I did so because I thought it was a duty I owed my country. I have risen from the ranks to be colonel of this regiment; and as private, captain, and lieutenant-colonel, I think I have had but this one object in view, and that is to serve my country to the best of my ability. If I have failed, it bas been an error of the head and not of the heart."

Colonel Craig was ardently attached to the brave men of his command, and they in turn gave him their love, respect, and prompt obedience. This feeling of pride and confidence in the officers and men of his regiment is fully illustrated in the following extracts from letters written by him while in the service.

In writing of the battle of Gettysburg, he says: .. The regiment never fought better in the world. . . . . It rallied some eight or or ten times after all the balance of the brigade had left it. I could handle them just as well on that field of battle as though they had simply been on drill. This is the state of perfection in drill that is gained by but few regiments. Confidence on the part of officers and men in one another is what makes troops perfect. This is the case of this ¬regiment. I have full confidence in my men, and I believe that they have confidence in their officers; that they will not ask them to do anything that they are afraid to do themselves."

Again, of the same battle:
"The regiment never did better. When they moved forward on the charge at the double-quick,' and with scarcely an inch of difference in their glittering bayonets, every man at his post - oh! but I did feel proud of them. I know I have a kind of weakness for this regiment; for I tell you, it is a regiment to be proud of."

In the same letter, in writing of the dangers attending his position, he says:
"I love my country, and am willing to fight for her; and, if needs be, to die for her."

In writing of the battle of Auburn, he says:
"I know it is in bad taste to write or talk about one's self, and I suppose it is equally as bad to write or talk about one's own regiment or company, and you may think I write this in praise of my own regiment to make myself appear in a favorable light; but I trust that you, who know me so well, will not think so. When I speak of the regiment, I mean the regiment, and not myself. People are at liberty to think of me ¬they will; but I do insist that the actions of tbe regiment shall appear in a proper light, whether that places me in an honorable or disgraceful position. I will close this by ¬simply saying that the One Hundred and Fifth is one of the best regiments in the service. At the affair at Auburn, no men could have behaved better, and the officers equally well; in fact, not a man shrank from duty, but each stood up manfully, as if the destiny of the Republic rested on his shoulders.

These extracts go to show the true patriotism of the man, and the unselfishness of hius character, for he was no reckless adventurer, but one for whom the ties that bound him to his home were of the strongest nature. On the 1st of February, 1864, while at home on veteran furlough, after the re-enlistment of his regiment, Colonel Craig was married to Miss Elmira J. Craig, of Greenville, Clarion county, and when he again returned to the field it was not only affectionate parents and fond sisters and brothers, but a loving wife, the bride of a few short weeks, with whom he was called to part.

Colonel Craig was in all the battles in which his regiment took part, from the siege of Yorktown to that of Petersburg, with the exception of the battles of Spottsylvania and Cold Harbor, when he was at home on account of wounds. He was wounded in the head slightly during the Seven Days battles before Richmond; at the Second Bull his horse was killed, and he was severely wounded in the ankle; at Gettysburg he had three horses shot under him; at the battle of the Wilderness he was shot in the face severing the facial artery, and but for the devotion of some of his men, who, for thirty-six hours, stood with fingers pressed to the wound, until he could obtain surgical aid, he would have bled to death; at the siege of Petersburg he was slightly wounded in the shoulder by a piece of shell; and at the battle of Deep Bottom, Va., August 16, 1864, while in command of the Second Brigade, Third Division of the Second Corps, was mortally wounded in the head, and lingered in unconsciousness until the next day, when he redeemed his pledge to die, if needs be," for his country.

Colonel Craig's remains were taken in charge by his young brother, J. H. Craig, who had served with him all through the war, and sadly borne to his home, where, amid the tears and bitter grief of the young wife, who yet mourns her dead hero, and of the aged father and mother, brothers and sisters, who so dearly loved him, and the sorrow of the entire community, he was laid to rest in the shadow of the pines overlooking his boyoood's home."

(Source – “History of Clarion County” by A.J. Davis, D. Mason & Co., Publishers, Syracuse, New York, 1887)
Craig, Colonel Calvin Augustus (I4196)
22 John Polliard (Uriah) (Source: Gary A. Polliard Family Tree, (Release date September 23, 2004), "CDROM.")was born 09 Jan 1857 in Rimersburg , Clarion Co., Pa., and died 22 Feb 1926 in Butler, Pa. He married Katherine Barbara Bahr. She was born 25 Nov 1865 in Petroleum Center, Pa., and died 19 Jul 1949.
Children of John Polliard and Katherine Bahr are:

i. Mabel Emma10 Polliard, born 1889; died 26 Jul 1933. She married James B. Key; died 28 Jul 1926.
ii. George L. Polliard, born 15 May 1891 in Clarion County, Pa.; died 02 Aug 1976 in Snyder Rest Home,Emlenton, Pa.. He married Josephine E. Master 03 Apr 1918; born 03 May 1891 in Emlenton, Pa.; died 07 Mar 1969 in Grove City Hospital, Grove City, Pa.
iii. Charles H. Polliard, born 30 Jul 1897; died Jun 1973 in Torrance, Westmoreland Co., Pa.. He married Bertha Viola Moyer; born 21 Jan 1897 in Popetown, Clarion Co., Pa.; died Feb 1976 in Ligonier, Pa.
iv. Harold Edgar Polliard, born 1903; died 01 Mar 1930 in Wheeling, West Virginia.
v. Leslie Alford Polliard, born 15 Aug 1909; died Feb 1999. He married Mary Elizabeth Pennington 12 Sep 1936; born 05 Feb 1913 in State College, Pa.; died 10 May 1989 in Lehigh Acres, Lee Co., Florida. 
Polliard, John (I3869)
23 Loffer Stewart (10/13/1830 - 3/22/1908) - m. 6/1/1854, Sarah Flick (5/12/1836 - 12/16/1901)

Loffer Stewart was a farmer. Sarah Flick was the daughter of Jonas and Mary Kein Flick. Loffer and Sarah lived on a farm in Toby twp. near the farm on which Reuben Stewart was living when he went to Nebraska. They are buried in the Rimersburg cemetery.

(A) Mary Elizabeth (1/31/1856 - 4/4/1924) - m. 11/7/1878, Charles Streeter
(1) Bertha Belle
(2) Roy Allen
(3) Ralph Walda
(B) Thomas Jefferson (4/26;1857 - 1928) - m. Sept 1900, Mrs. Rhoda Grand no children
(C) Anna, also Susanna, Loffer (6/30/1858 - 12/10/1920) - m. Francis B. Megarry
children: William, Frank, Harvey, Emma, Charles, and David
(D) David Flick (11/30/1860 - 10/30/1923) - m. Ruby Harding
(1) Lee H.
(E) Sarah Jane (6/28/1862 - 4/30/1912) - never married
(F) James Lafayette (4/12/1865) - never married, lived on his father's farm
(G) Mattie Ermina (5/11/1871 -11/27/1910) - never married

(Source - Frontier Families of Toby Township, Clarion County, Pennsylvania by Heber Rankin, Janice Yingling, editor, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, May 1995) 
Stewart, Loffer (I0445)
24 " Abraham Stewart, married in 1761Hester Nickson, his first cousin, daughter of Abraham Nickson, jr., esq., of Nunny, County Wicklow. He was a captain, and a knight. On the death without issue of Sir James A. Stewart, eighth baronet of Rathmelton, son of Sir James and grandson of Sir Annesley, the baronetcy passed to Sir Abraham's eldest son, Rev. Abraham Augustus Stewart, who died in 1812. Through the operation of the land purchase acts, by which a tenant could buy his holding, the Rathmelton and Fort Stewart estates in County Donegal, once comprising more than 7000 acres and bringing in a yearly rental of L5000, were progressively reduced through the years until about all that remained of them by 1900 was Fort Stewart house (rebuilt on another site) and patches of woodland and streams, unfit for tillage but good for a bit of shoot-ing and fishing." (Source - Sewart Clan Magazine, Tome H, Volume 37, Number 7, January 1960)
Stewart, Captain Abraham (I1391)
25 " David and Robert (possibly his brother) Elder settled in Path Valley, Cumberland County, now Franklin County, Pennsylvania, near Dry Run". (Source - Genealogy of David Elder and Margery Stewart, Copiled by Thomas A. Elder, B.S.A.; M.D., Wooster, Ohio, 1905) Elder, David (I0161)
26 " We now have proof that John Gass, son of Henry was in Bourbon County, Kentucky and was the John Gess who served in the Revolution.

Bourbon County, Kentucky - Deed Book E - page 20

This indenture made and concluded this twenty fourth day of October in the year of our lord one thousand seven hundred and ninety eight between John Gass (son of Henry) of the county of Bourbon and state of Kentucky of one part, and John Gass (son of David) of the county and state aforesaid of the other part, witnessed that the said John Gass (son of Henry) for and in consideration of the sum of ten pounds current money of Kentucky, to him in hand paid, the receipt whereof he dath hereby acknowledge, hath granted, bargained, sold and by these presents doth, grant, bargain and sell unto the said John Gass (son of David) his heirs or assigns forever, one certain tract or parcel of land containing by survey two hundred acres, lying and being in Bourbon County on the head of Johnstons fork of Licking, being the Eastward by half of a settlement right granted to the said John Gass (son of Henry) by patent, bearing date the twenty third day of May in the year of our lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty five and bounded as following, to wit, Beginning ...

In witness where of the said John Gass (son of Henry) hath here unto set his hand and affixed his seal, the day and year first above written in presence of us

John Gass
James Black
Joseph Henderson
James Gass

Bourbon County
Court 1799 January"

(Source - Mary H. Cole, 70 Ridgecrest Rd, Kentfield, CA 94904-2476, 
Gess, John (I0263)
27 " William, according to Egle, was bom in 1736, and this may be right. James and his wife Elizabeth were married in January 1734 in Philadelphia, so could have had a child as early as late 1734. Bertram, the next, was bom in 1738; and Thomas was supposedly bom in 1746. Several sources, including DAR papers for people claiming to be descendants of William, say he was married to Jean Webster. He may have been at some much later date in his life (although I believe these sources have him confused with another William Galbraith), but his first wife was named Margaret Buchanan, and they were married in Carlisle in 1754 when he was only about 18 years old. I found this in the marriage records of a German Lutheran minister, the Rev. John Casper Stoever--the last place you would expect to find the marriage of a staunch Scotch-Irish Presbyterian--while I was looking for Harrigers, who were Lutheran. Of course, at first I had no proof that this William was the son of James Jr., until I found additional information in the York County courthouse which proves it was the same William. In the York Co. Orphans Court, James Galbraith of Derry Township, Lancaster Co. (James Jr. lived there until 1761) appeared in 1754, acting as guardian for his son, William, and William's wife, Margaret, who were both under legal age, representing them against Jane Buchanan, widow of Robert Buchanan, in an attempt to obtain a share of Buchanan's estate for his daughter Margaret. (Whether they got any of it or not, I was unable to find out.) Jane and Robert Buchanan were among the earliest settlers of Cumberland County, having moved there from Donegal at least 20 years earlier than James Galbraith.

I also found references in later York County records to land deeds involving both Bertram Galbraith (of Lancaster Co.) and a William Galbraith "of Baltimore, Maryland", I feel the latter had to be William, brother of Bertram, for although Bertram did have a son William, he would have been too young at this particular time to be involved in land purchases. So it would appear that William may have lived in Maryland for awhile after his earlier marriage, which certainly had some aspects of a "hurry-up" affair and was probably embarrassing to both families. William, and his wife were both under the legal age, meaning they would have had to have parental consent, and this may be why they were married by an itinerant Lutheran minister (who also married many other Scotch-Irish couples in the area) rather than in the Presbyterian Church of Carlisle, which had been established in the 1730s (and still stands today). I believe also that James must have given William a cash settlement of some kind, as I can find no record in Lancaster, Cumberland or York counties of any land transfer between the two, while James' gift of land to Bertram is recorded in the Lancaster County courthouse. (James may have owned land in Maryland, which borders on Lancaster County, and may have given this to him. I have been unable to research Maryland records to date, so have not been able to follow up on this.) The reader may wonder how William, whose family lived Der-ry, LancasterCounty, metMargaret Buchanan, whose family lived in Cumberland County near Carlisle. Actually the distance was not great, only about 15 or 20 miles, but the Susquehanna River divided the two counties. However, colonial records show that William, young as he was (I8, according to Egle's birthdate, but he could have been as old as 20) was a surveyor for the provincial government and as Cumberland County had only been erected from Lancaster in 1750, there was a great deal of surveying of land warrants there for years afterward. Also, there were strong ties between the Galbraiths and the Buchanans (going all the way back to Scotland) and they had also been neighbors of the Galbraiths at Donegal before moving to Cumberland County in the 1740s. So William undoubtedly knew the family well before his marriage to Margaret.

Letter from Richard Peters, secretary of the Provincial Council, to Thomas Penn in 1755: Ed. Shippen succeeds himself for office except that of Deputy Surveyor, which is given by Mr. Scull with the Government's approval and on my recommendation to a son of Mr. James Galbreath of Paxtang, who has been a steady friend to the Government and the Proprietary Interests ever since your departure."
This could only have been Wiffiam, as in 1755 he was the only son of James who was old enough to have been a surveyor. Bertram, bom 1738, was a noted surveyor in his time, but he would have been only 17 at this time. William was just married, and it is quite probable that his father obtained this position for him through his influence with the government and his close friendship with Robert Peters (from whom he bought the land he later occupied in East Pennsboro Township). (Source - The Galbraith Families of Donegal Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, A Collection of Works, The Clan Galbraith Association of North America, May 1992)

By Elizabeth Galbraith DeCarolis
The Red Tower, Clan Galbraith Association International, Volume XX, No. 2, December 1998.

The tree I've outlined in this article needs to be documented since it claims a link with the Galbaiths of Donegal. Since I wrote the articles about William Galbraith of Baltimore that appeared in the March and June, 1998 issues of The RedTower, I have found still more material to substantiate the family ties. Williams (1736 - 1788) in his will of 1780, proved in October, 1788, names his next younger brother Bertram (I738 - 1804) as executor and for a long time I had looked for evidence that Bertram had actually performed such a duty. While he was still leasing a waterfront lot on Baltimore's Gay Street, William Galbreath "of Baltimore Town in the Province of Maryland' had deeds recorded of land purchases in both Cumberland and York counties, PA from Thomas Colhoun (sic) 'late of the County of Cumberland in the Province of Pennsylvania but now of the Province of Nova Scotia," eldest son and serving as surviving executor of his father John Colhoun's estate.

These two deeds were:

6 Oct 1768 (recorded 5 May 1769 Cumberland County) - a deed for land in West Pennsboro, Cumberland Co., PA: 200 acres for f 200, adjoining the lands of Ezekiel Dunning and Robert Dunning, 'which land is claimed by the said Robert Dunning.ff' This is the same parcel which Rebecca Calhoun, widow of John, had already deeded to her younger son James 'for Natural love & affection" and 5 shillings on 20 July 1763 but which was not recorded until 09 August 1790.' James Calhoon then had sold the land to one of the Carothers, according to William of Baltimore's will.

6 Oct 1768 (recorded 7 Feb 1770 York County) - deed for land in Manchester Twp., York Co., PA for 402 acres for F200, 'adjoining lands of John Welsh, John Connely and Connewago Creek."' This is the same tract which had already been sold by Sheriff David McConoughy through a court order to William Smith, merchant of Baltimore on 31 Oct 1767. (See section - Five Confusing Deeds.)

Both deeds appear to have been executed and witnessed in Nova Scotia, with further verification by John Monro, Notary Publick (sic) for Nova Scotia but located in 'Boston in New England" on 29 November 1768. Was William on a trading trip to Nova Scotia in 1768 with a stopover in Boston on the way back to Baltimore? Was he uneasy about his financial decisions and wished the extra verification before telling his father, James, Jr., who had advanced him f 200, and brother Bartrem about his land purchases? Or had he been sent as an agent by father James to negotiate for and buy the strategically-located parcel in West Pennsboro? Why did he buy the second parcel in York County? As late as 1780 when William wrote his will leaving household furniture to his "beloved consort' Hester Rees and land and money to his two sons, William Noble and Thomas, he still believed that his estate included the parcel in West Pennsboro because he lists the land "kn(ywn by the name of Calhoones Land near to dunnings spring sold by a certain James Calhoon to one Carruthers for which I have a deed from Thomas Calhoone and Recorded in the Office for Cumberland Countey." He apparently did not know that the transaction from Rebecca Calhoon to her son, James had taken place before he paid f 200 for the same parcel! And did Thomas Calhoon as executor of his father's estate not know about the land transactions?

Court Cases and Bartram as Executor for William

In April, 1754, there is an entry in the index for the Court of Common Pleas, Cumberland County, PA for James Galbreath vs Ezekiel Dunning which was not heard but rather continued from year to year until the entry finally reads James Galbraith, deceased, vs Ezekiel Dunning for the January session 1792 and continued again to August 1795. Could this be about a land dispute? The subject matter is not given but the plaintiffs are steadily dying off. And then, for the October, 1788 court term in Cumberland County, PA (the same month William's will was proved in Baltimore County, MD) there is an entry which reads "Banram Galbreath, Executor of William Galbreath Deceased vs John Galbreath (Galbreath here may be an error on the part of the court clerk since the index reads John Calhoun), administrator of Rebecca Calhoon Deceased Origl action No. 56 to October Term 1760 continued April 1789 on Motion on behalf of James Carother-s that the judgment in this Sci. Fa. (L. for scire facias) be set aside and that a Trial shall be had of the Merits of the Cause and by consent of the Plaintiff's attorney the Court directs that the judgment on the Sci. Fa. be set aside, defendant Pleads payment with Leave to give the Special Matter in Evidence Replecn. (?) non Solvit and Issue and Rule for Trial." Court costs are listed and the case is continued each session until April 1791 when the entry Removed by Certiorari is written, probably meaning appealed to a higher court.' There's more work to be done here but at least Bartram Galbraith has been identified in his role as executor of William of Baltimore's estate.

Five Confusing Deeds in York County, PA

Something which has puzzled me for some time are several deeds related to the Manchester Twp., York Co., PA tract of 402 acres (the same tract William of Baltimore had been deeded in Nova Scotia, 1768).
The history goes like this.-
20 Feb. 1779 - William Smith of Baltimore Town to Bartram Galbraith, Esq. of Lancaster County: 402 acres in ManchesterTwp.forf2OO. Withinthis deed are sections which relate the land's earlier history: the Court of Common Pleas in the fifth year of the reign of George III (1 764 or 1765?) had ordered the sheriff to sell the land in settlement of John and Rebecca Calhoon's estates. Sheriff Robert McPherson completed his term of office and 3was succeeded by Sheriff David McConoughy, Esq. who had then on 31 Oct 1767 conveyed the 402 acres to William Smith, merchant of Baltimore, for f 200. 6 Oct 1768 - this is the sale from Thomas Colhoon in Nova Scotia to William Galbraith described earlier. Beyond these two deeds there were also three others dealing with the same piece of land 3 May 1794 - Banram Galbraith to Michael Flouri: 12 acres for f 60.13 June 1796 - Bartram Galbraith to Abraham Leib: 53 acres for L233.6.8. 16 March 1797 - Bartram Galbraith to Samuel Gross: 105 acres for f 328. "But the fi na I section of the 20 Feb 1 779 deed provides another important piece of documentation about Bartram's management and financial skills and his relationship to William of Baltimore: this deed was executed in Baltimore and witnessed and signed by William Neill and William Galbraith. That same year Bartram began showing up on the Manchester, York County tax list. Bartram Galbraith of Donegal appears to be a man of enormous energy and attention to minute detail, a tireless and conscientious younger brother to William of Baltimore. And yes, he was keeping track of his travel expenses because in James, Jr.'s estate inventory' dated 29 Aug 1786 are listed:
'Bonds of William Galbreath in Bartrim Galbreath's hand -f 563.0.0"
'to Cash due from William Galbraith being money lent 20 Years past -f 200.0.0"

William Noble Galbraith

After Hester Rees Galbraith's marriage to John Farmer in Baltimore Town (see footnote 18) on 12 September 1788, the 1790 Maryland census does not list a John Farmer, but William Noble as eldest son according to his father's will, appears in the public record in 1790 on a Probate Record index in Baltimore County,'o working as a tanner in Baltimore County. He is always meticulous in using the initial N or the name Noble in the middle of his name as he pursued two separate land transactions: 4 March 1793 - a lease assignment and mortgage deed for 3.5 acres in the Chatsworth parcel northwest of the city along the Reisterstown turnpike from Jacob Kuhn, also a tanner." 31 October 1793 - assignment deed to lease Lot #49 on the east side of Calvert Street along the waterfront, also from Jacob Kuhn."

One of the most important clues for William Galbraith researchers is the announcement of the marriage of William Noble Galbraith to Mary Range. The ol November 1793 issue of the Baltimore Daily Intelligencer reports that William Noble Galbraith, of Baltimore, and "the agreeable Miss Mary Range, of Pennsylvania, were married a few days ago.' I was able to locate on microfilm the actual announcement. (if one wants to read this, the lntelligencer replaced the Baltimore Daily Repository, ran for a year, then, in turn, was replaced by the Federal lntelligencer and Baltimore Daily Gazette.)
More deeds followed:
*15 August 1794 - William Noble assigns the deed to lease the Chatsworth parcel to job Smith of Baltimore Town. 13
*25 June 1795 - he assigns the lease on Lot #49 on the harbor to Thomas Gilbert as he and Mary Range Galbraith prepare to move back to Pennsylvania. The deed states that he still owes Jacob Kuhn f 130 in back rent and repayment of his mortgate."
16 May 1796 - now in Cumberland County, PA William Noble is deeded 100 acres in Tyrone and Juniata Twps by John Lawshe."
3 September 1796 - sells the Tyrone/ Juniata parcel to Jacob Kuhn of Baltimore County. "
With each of the land sales he makes a slight gain, but after 3 years of marriage and probably one or two children he appears to still be in debt.
* August 1797 - Case #47 in Court of Common Pleas, Cumberland County

William N. Galbraith vs Henry Brangan, charge of trespassing. Case not heard, continued until August 1808 when a finding of N.I.H.I.L. (nothing) is reached. 11 July 1798 - in Kline's Carlisle Weekly Gazette he petitions for relief from debt and the petition is scheduled to be heard in the August 6 session of the Court of Common Pleas for Cumberland County. This case also is never heard. Have William Noble and Mary Range removed to York County to be near her family? 7 February 1799 - William (no Noble in this signature) receives with Mary Range the legacy from Theobald Shollas, Mary's grandfather, in the amount of F36-9.7 to be paid by John Range, executor for Shollas's estate." I had long believed that the William and Mary Galbraith in Mt. Pleasant, Adams county, PA in the census records of 1800 through 1840 were William Noble and Mary Range Galbraith. But the will of Mary Galbraith in the September RedTower submitted by Frances Williams, indicates that Mary's parents were Robert and Isabella Galbraeth. Are any of our members descended from William Noble and Mary Range Galbraith? Have they removed to Tennessee with others of the Range family? Jean Harriger seems to think so but I haven't located them yet. 
Galbraith, William (I0348)
28 "According to William Henry Egle, the noted Pennsylva historian, John came to the Province of Pennsylvania in 1718 with his brother James. Egle says that John settled in Philadelphia, their port of entry, but at this time we have no more information on him." (Source- The Red Tower, Clan Galbraith Association International, Volume XXI, No. 2, December 1999) Galbraith, John (I2588)
29 "Adam Carnahan's Blockhouse was located about one mile south of the Kiskiminetas river and about six miles below the mouth of the Conemaugh river. In August 1777, six or seven men with James Chambers were reaping oats six miles from Carnahans Blockhouse and one of the men had taken his gun and wounded a deer. While hunting for it in the woods adjoining the oat field he discovered an Indian and signs of others. He immediately gave notice to the reapers and they left to notify the seftlers. They went to John McKibbens where several families had collected for safety in McKibbens large log house. The next day, which was Saturday, a party went out from McKibbens to scout. That afternoon Robert Taylor and David Carnahan went from Carnahans Blockhouse to McKibbens to learn what they could of the Indians. When they were returning , they had nearly reached the Blockhouse when they saw several Indians coming. They beat the Indians to the blockhouse and had made the doors fast when the Indians appeared, fourteen in number. There were a few men in the blockhouse. John Carnahan opened the door and stepped out to get a good shot and he was instantly shot and killed. His body was dragged in and the door again fastened." Frontier Forts of Western Pennsylvania, Clarence M. Busch, 1896, v. 11, p.333.

"Fort Hand was erected near the house of one John McKibben, whose large log house had been the refuge and asylum of a number of people whither they had fled at times preceding that event, as is noted in the sketch of Carnahans Blockhouse. From the extract given there from the Draper Manuscripts, now in pessession of Wisconsin Historical Society, it appears that during the summer of 1777, when the Indians infested all that line of frontier, McKibben's house was one of the objective places at which many of the families remained probably during the entire summer, while the men gathered the crops and scouted and fought. Carnahans Blockhouse was the nearest point, and although they were only about three or four miles apart, the communication between them was frequently cut off.

This portion of Westmoreland and the entire frontier as well, would have been entirely deserted that summer, so much did it suffer from the savages had not Col. Lochry succeeded in raising sixty men whom he stationed in four divisions under the command of two captains and two lieutenants who covered the line of the Kiskiminetas. A part of this force ranged this neighborhood and assisted the inhabitants from these two posts, Carnahans and McKibbens. McKibben's house, subsequently Fort Hand, was from three to four miles south from the Kiskiminetas river at the ford and the ford was about six miles above the mouth of the stream. The stream was northeast from Hannastown about fourteen miles. Upon the particulars mentioned in the Draper Manuscripts, which were founded on statements of James Chambers who was personally conversant with the facts, the reapers in the oat fields, when they had been appraised of the presence of Indians, left to notify the people, taking their guns with them and going to the house of John McKibben, where Fort Hand was made the following winter, where several families had collected for safety." ibid, p. 325.

"On April 26, 1779, Captain Moorhead's company of 17 men defended Fort Hand against an Indian attack. Sergeant McGraw, an old Irishman, was killed in this attack and Sergeant McCauley was slightly wounded. During the night the Indians fired a deserted house near the fort - an old building of McKibben's - which had been for some time occupied by William McLaughlin, but was deserted on the approach of the Indians. There were many whites with this Indian party (about 100 strong) who now taunted the Fort people when the house was burning and asked if all was well now'? This party of British and Indians was too strong to be pursued." Fort Hand, built between October 18 and December 6, 1777, was burned and abandoned in the fall of 1779 ibid, p. 328-329, 331.

"At the beginning of the Revolutionary War the John McKibben family was living in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania near the present site of Apollo. It was on this farm that John McKibben built a stockade where the settlers took shelter from the raiding Indians. Later this stockade was fortified and named Fort Hand. This fort burned in the fall of 1779 and the McKibbens moved to Mt. Pleasant Township, Washington County, Pennsylvania, in 1781." John McKibben, his wife, and son, Samuel, are buried at the Presbyterian cemetery in Cross Creek Township, Washington County, Pwnnsylania. John McKibben's will, dated 8/25/1798, was proved 10/30/1798. (Source - Frontier Families of Toby Township, Clarion County, Pennsylvania, by Heber Rankin, Janice Yingling, Editor, May 1995)

McKibben, John (I3129)
30 "Alexander Stewart, born about. 1725, in County Donegal, is a traditional character. It was partly for the purpose of clarifying this genealogy that we commenced this detailed interview of the Stewart families in the North of Ireland and make it practical, for there are a number of persons of Stewart descent in the United States who have asserted their descent to be through Lieut. William Stewart of Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, a brother of this traditional Alexander, but who are obviously mistaken or are just plain bunglers.

Alexander Stewart is said to have inherited the Carnemauga farm in County Donegal on his father's death, after 1734, and remained there, married and had children, while his mother, Rebecca (Galbraith) Stewart, with her other children, left the old sod for ampler prospects in America.

Now, the traditional descent of Lieut. William seems all right. But the story of his oldest brother, said to have been Alexander, needs repair. His son Samuel, who died in Ohio on Aug. 20, 1835, is estimated to have been born about 1754, which could be. His wife Elizabeth, who died in Ohio on Dec. 14, 1837, kept a certificate of good certificate which the Reformed Presbyterian minister at Green Hill had given her on June 3, 183l. We can dismiss this branch, for there is no dissension among their descendants. The rub is over Lieut. William's descendants, principally because he had a Revolutionary war record. It is possible that some of the claimants are descended from one of Lieut. William's other brothers, Charles and Robert. They were probably Revolutionary soldiers, too." (Source - Stewart Clan Magazine, Tome I, Volume 37, February 1960)

Mary Cole states that "Samuel (son of Alexander) and wife, Elizabeth, died in Ireland. Their maiden daughters - Martha & Elizabeth came to Ohio about 1876 -1877. They willed their land and family Bible to their American cousins. I would love to find this will or record. I do not know what happened to Samuel and Elizabeth's sons - Alexander and David." (Note to File - JP Rhein)

Mary Cole is not correct in the above assertion which she obtained from "A Family of Millers and Stewart" by Robert F. Miller as Miller is in error on these descendants of Alexander Stewart. Martha and Elizabeth Stewart are descendants of the grand-father of J.H. Stewart, referred to in "A Family of Millers and Stewarts" by Robert F.l Miller, and are not in the line of Colonel William Stewart, father of Alexander Stewart. (Note to File - JP Rhein)

I have listed son Alexander here as a reference for those researching the Stewart line. There is no record of his birth, marriage if any, and his death. (Note to File - JP Rhein)

Stewart, Alexander II (I0178)
31 "Andrew Galbraith was major of the Flying Camp at the battle of Long Island and was captured and confined on a prison ship during the remainder of the war. The diary that he kept is in the possession of the family." (Source - The National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution, Lineage Books, Original 50 Volumes, page 75) Galbraith, Andrew (I0355)
32 "Anne Stewart, baptized February 17, 1679, married in 1711 Luke Gardiner, esq. He "passed through employments with integrity and care, till he arrived at the office of deputy vice-treasurer of Ireland," said a writer for the Stewart family. He died July 11,1753, at Bath, England. The children of Luke and Anne (Stewart) Gardiner were: Charles, Sackville, Henrietta and Mary. Charles Gardiner inherited a considerable estate from his father. His son, Luke Gardiner, knight of the shire for Dublin, got enough cold cash together to have himself created Viscount Mountjoy in 1795, and, on the death of Admiral John Forbes, son of Arthur and Mary Stewart Forbes, in 1796, be acquired the Stewart estates in County Tyrone. This grandson Luke Gardiner, Lord Mountjoy, was hated by the Irish, whom he had tried to conciliate as a member of the Irish parliament in 1782 by pushing through two acts removing restrictions on the civil rights of Roman Catholics. The native Ersc put up a tremendous rebellion in 1798 against the greed of their English masters, and, as John Richard Green said in his SHORT HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH PEOPLE, "woke passions of cruelty and tyranny (in the rulers) which turned Ireland into a hell. Soldiers and yeomanry marched over the country torturing and scourging the croppies', as the Irish peasantry were called in derision from their short-cut hair, robbing, ravishing and murdering. Their outrages were sanctioned by the landowners, who formed the Irish parliament." Luke Gardiner-grandson of Luke and Anne (Stewart) Gardiner arrived at New Ross, County Wexford, on June 4, 1798, in command of a Dublin regiment, to reinforce the governor against an impending attack by some 30,000 desperate rebels. The town was saved in a bloody battle, but Lord Mountjoy, aged 53, was killed, much to the delight of the Irish, who dragged his body around and mangled it in the most horrid manner." (Source - Stewart Clan Magazine, Tome I, Volume 37, February 1960)

Stewart, Anne (I1358)
33 "Arrived September 18, 1733 on 'Pennsylvania Merchant' Philadelphia with wife and four children plus son-in-law married to daughter Anna Elisabetha. Upon arrival, they went immediately to their homestead on Mill Creek near present day village of Host, Pennsylvania. They left Rotterdam on June 24, 1733 but they spent abound two months journeying down the Rhein river to Rotterdam The trip took between five and six months travel time. Most of the Johannes Cornelius Riegel family arrived on the 'Pennsylvania Merchant' in 1733, except Matthias and Jorg Wilhelm, who came on the 'Adventure' in 1732. All except Matthis, who settled in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, lived near their parents in Tulpehocken Township. Johannes established a mill which stayed in the family until 1817. In 1992, the farm was still standing in its original condition although about half its original size. It was built on land purchased from the Penn family." (Source - Riegell to Riggle, page 10) Riegell, Johannes Cornelius (I1679)
34 "At the beginning of the Revolutionary War the John McKibben family was living in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania near what is now the present site of Apollo. It was on this farm that John McKibben built a stockade where the settlers took shelter from the raiding Indians. Later this stockade was fortified and named Fort Hand. This fort burned in the fall of 1779 and the McKibbens moved to Mt. Pleasant Township, Washington County, Pennsylvania in 1781. John McKibben, his wife and Samuel, are buried at the Presbyterian cemetery in Cross Creek Township, Washington County, Pennsylvania." (Source - Frontier Families of Toby Township, Clarion County, Pennsylvania by Heber Rankin, Janice Yingling, Editor, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, May 1995)

"Adam Carnahan's Blockhouse was located about one mile south of the Kiskiminetas river and about six miles below the mouth of the Conemaugh river. In August 1777, six or seven men with James Chambers were reaping oats, six miles from Carhahans Blockhouse and one of the men had taken his gun and wounded a deer. While hunting for it in the woods adjoining the oat field he discovered an Indian and signs of others. He immediately gave notice to the reapers and they left to notify the settlers. They went to John McKibbens where several families had collected for safety in McKibbens large log house. The next day, which was Saturday, a party went out from McKibbens to scout. That afternoon Robert Taylor and David Carnahan went from Carhahans Blockhouse to McKibbens to learn what they could of the Indians. When they were returning, they had nearly reached the blockhouse when they saw several Indians coming. They beat the Indians to the blockhouse and had made the doors fast when the Indians appeared, fourteen in number. There were a few men in the blockhouse. John Carnahan opened the door and stepped out to get a good shot and he was instantly shot and killed. His body was dragged in and the door again fastened." (Source - Frontier Forts of Western Pennsylvania, Clarence M. Busch, 1896, v. II, p. 333)

"Fort Hand was erected near the house of one of John McKibben, whose large log house had been the refuge and asylum of a number of people wither they had fled at times preceding that event, as is noted in the sketch of Carnahans Blockhouse. From the extract given there from the Draper Manuscripts, now in possession of Wisconsin Historical Society, it appears that during the summer of 1777, when the Indians infested all that line of frontier, McKibben's house was one of the objective places at which many of the families remained probably during the entire summer, while the men gathered the crops and scouted and fought.

Carnahans Blockhouse was the nearest point, and although they were only about three or four miles apart, the communication between them was frequently cut off.

This portion of Westmoreland and the entire frontier as well, would have been entirely deserted that summer, so much did it suffer from the savages had not Col. Lochry succeeded in raising sixty men whom he stationed in four divisions under the command of two captains and two lieutenants who covered the line of the Kiskiminetas. A part of this force ranged this neighborhood and assisted the inhabitants from these two posts, Carnahans and McKibbens. McKibben's house, subsequently Fort Hand, was from three to four miles south from the Kiskiminetas river at the ford and by the ford was about six miles above the mouth of the stream. The stream was northeast from Hannastown about fourteen miles.

Upon the particulars mentioned in the Draper Manuscripts, which were founded on statements of James Chambers who was personally conversant with the facts, the reapers in the oat fields, when they had been appraised of the presence of Indians, left to notify the people, taking their guns with them and going to the house of John McKibben, where Fort Hand was made the following winter, where several families had collected for safety." Source - ibid, page 325)

"On April 26, 1779, Captain Moorehead's Company of 17 men defended Fort Hand against an Indian attack. Sergeant McGraw, an old Irishman, was killed in this attack and Sergeant McCauley was slightly wounded. During the night the Indians fired a deserted house near the fort - an old building of McKibben's - which had been for some time occupied by William McLaughlin, but was deserted on the approach of the Indians. There were many whites with this Indian party (about 100 strong) who now taunted the Fort Hand people when the house was burning and asked if all was well now? This party of British and Indians was too strong to be pursued. Fort Hand, built between October 18 and December 6, 1777, was burned and abandoned in the fall of 1779." (Source - ibid, page 328-329, 331)  
McKibben, John (I3096)
35 "Before considering the matter of Rebecca Galbraith, daughter of 1718 James Galbraith, we should consider the birth dates of all of his children. James, born in 1666, may have married in 1688 at the age of 22. His oldest son, John, was born in 1690 and his second son, Robert, in 1692. His third son, James, was born in 1703. His daughter, Isabel, was married on August 21, 1735, and therefore, if she were a normal 18 to 22 years old when married, would have been born 1713-1717. Leaving Rebecca's birth date aside for the moment, that is a strange pattern. Two sons were born: then 11 years passed before another son was born; then perhaps another 10 years passed before Isabel was born. Did the mother of John and Robert, presumably Rebecca Chambers, die following Robert's birth? Did James Sr. marry again before the birth of James Jr.? Did a second wife die following the birth of James Jr.? Did James Sr. marry yet again before the birth of Isabel? And did that third wife also die before they all left for America, where there is no historical reference or mention of a wife to James Sr.? That is unlikely. But the sequence of birth dates is strange.

Where does Rebecca fit in this picture? We know that Rebecca did not make the trip to America in 1718. A Stewart family genealogical record states: "Alexander Stewart of Fort Stewart and Carnemauga, born about 1703, m. about 1732 Rebecca dau. John Galbraith of Newton Cunningham." We know Rebecca was the daughter of James Galbraith Sr. and we also know she did indeed marry Alexander Stewart. Could the Stewart genealogist have erred in mistaking her grandfather, John Galbraith of Newton Cunningham, for her actual father? That could support the idea that the father of 1718 James Galbraith was a John Galbraith.

If Rebecca were a normal 18-22 years old when she married Alexander Stewart, she would have been born 1710-1714. She would certainly not have been left behind in Ireland when her family left for America in 1718. Rebecca is credited with six children, the oldest being Alexander Stewart Jr. Alexander Stewart, the father, is reported to have died 1742 - 1743 in Ireland. Following his death, in 1745 Rebecca and five of her children came to Pennsylvania to join her family; and there Rebecca died in 1748. Alexander Stewart Jr. did not make that trip, but stayed behind in Donegal and inherited his father's land, If he were a son of Rebecca, Alexander Jr. might have been born at the earliest in 1733/1734. That would have made him 11-12 years old when Rebecca, his mother, left for America. That too is pretty unlikely. Surely a mother wouldn't leave an liar 12 year old child behind when she left for another continent. But all her other five children who made the trip to America appear to have been of an age to have been born after 1732.

I wonder if Rebecca was not born 1700-1701 and had been just married when her family left Donegal for America. Whom did she marry? Her will refers to a son named James Karr, but in those times individuals might refer to their sons-in-law and daughters-in-law simply as sons and daughters. So we don't know if James Karr was actually her son or a son-in-law. But if he were her son, the name James would not have been inappropriate and he might have been named for her father. One of the witnesses to her will was Elizabeth Kerr. Was she the wife of James Karr? To be 21 and a witness when Rebecca wrote her will, Elizabeth had to have been born no later than 1727. So, Rebecca might have been married to a Karr/Kerr c 1718 just before her family left for America and James might have later married an Elizabeth (last name unknown). Or Rebecca could have married a man (name unknown) c 1718 and had a daughter Elizabeth who later married James Karr/Kerr. Or James and Elizabeth were brother and sister, Rebecca's children of her first marriage with a man named Karr/Kerr. In any case James and Elizabeth might have come to America with Rebecca and her five other children. Rebecca then would have been widowed before she married Alexander Stewart in 1732. I wonder also if Alexander Stewart had not been previously married and was a widower with a son, Alexander Stewart Jr., when he married Rebecca in 1732. That would account for Alexander Jr. being older than Rebecca's other children and being left behind when Rebecca and her other children left for America." (Source - Article by Dave Colwell in the August 2009 issue of The Red Tower, Clan Galbraith Association, Vol. XXX. No 4, ISSN 1059-4264)

Galbraith, Rebecca (I0013)
36 "Camp Starkweather
April 9th 1864 lookout Mountain

Dear father In the full In Joy Ment of good health
Inow resume my Seat to write you a few lines and trust that those few lines may find you and all the rest in Joying the Same grate blessing
Weare Still Encamped on lookout Mountain and are getting along Well The weather hear is at present warm Slitely wet by times as thare has nothing of Importance transpired In our bounds of late that is worth Writing about Sothat Ihave not much to write at present Tharefore will Close by asking you Write Soon yours truly Tho Stewart

Dear Mother
Received a letter from Reuben to day Stating that
your health was verry poor at present Dear Mother Ishould like verry much ToSeeyou and trust that your health May berestored and your life spared untill we all retum home once more but it it Should beother ways we Should all beresined to our masters

Will and Trust that if weare not permited to meat inthis world that we may meet In heaven Whare parting will beno more Thare will be no war thare to part us as that has been the Caus of you being parted from your own brothers and sisters and also from your own sons Trust that you may bepermited to meat them one and all on
that happier Shore whare parting Will be no more as for My Self lam well and has In Joyed verry good health Ever Since ileft home which ihave evry reason to be thankful for and hope It may Continue So with me untill my time is out.

As I have nothing more to Write at present iwill Close for this time hoping to hear from you
Soon Yours Truly
to Mrs. Susan Stewart My Mother
By Allen Stewart
Your Son

Wm. J. Ramsey Sends his kindest wishes to yo"

After the war he became a farmer and lived on the old homestead. Lydia Males was also borm in Clarion Co. Both are buried in the Concord cemetery, Perry twp., Clarion Co., PA. (HIR, 1965)

Allen Stewart's obituary reads as follows: " Allen Stewart died suddenly at his late residence in Bela on Monday evening June 10th 1912. Mr. Stewart had just been seated at the supper table with his family when he was seized by the fatal sickness which caused his death a half hour later. For the last two years his health was broken and it was expected that the end would come suddenly. Mr. Stewart was bom in Toby township July 31, 1840, being 71 years, 10 months and 10 days old. He was married December 28, 1865 to Miss Lydia Male - seven children were the issue of this union one of whom died young. He is survived by one sister, one foster brother, two sons and four daughters. His wife died almost four years ago. Mr. Stewart was a soldier serving in the 78th Regiment and fought in many batUes. He was a member of the Concord Presbyterian church and attended faithfully to the services. He was very pronounced in his views of religion, was an affectionate husband, a thotful father and a kind neighbor. The funeral Service was conducted in the Concord Church by the Rev. Sam Puel Blacker, assisted by Rev. R. V. Hartman and Rev. H. Macleod. Interment took place in the adjoining cemetery." (from photocopy of newspaper clipping, copied by Janice Yingling 6/19/95)

Source - Frontier Families of Toby Township, Clarion County, Pennsylvania by Heber Rankin, Janice Yingling, Editor, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, May 1965) 
Stewart, Allen (I0449)
37 "Charles Stewart, "being brought up to the sea service, was gradually advanced to the command of several ships of war; and in 1697, in an engagement with the French off Dover, he lost, his right hand. He was at that time only 16 years old." In October, 1715, he was chosen as representative, in the Irish parliament for County Tyrone. In 1720 King George I appointed him commander-in-chief of a squadron of ships to cruise against the Sallee Rovers, a pirate outfit, and also plenipotentiary to treat of peace with the sultan of Morocco. For this and other services the king, on Dec. 14, 1725, gave him an annuity of L300 for life. He was made rear-admiral of the blue squadron on June 20, 1729, and given orders to proceed to the West Indies. He was appointed rear-admiral of the white squadron in July, 1732, and on Feb. 23, 1733, he was put in command of the Devonshire, and was constituted vice-admiral of the white squadron an Apr. 30, 1736. He was elected a burgess of Portsmouth, England, on Feb. 10, 1737, at which time he must have been retired from the navy. He died Feb. 5, 1740, reportedly unmarried." (Source - Stewart Clan Magazine, Tome, Volume 37, February 1960)
Stewart, Charles (I1360)
38 "Charles Stewart, married [license Mar. 31, 1743] Elizabeth Eustace, only daughter of Cherwood Eustace of Harristown, County Kildare. "He was for some time in the army," Samuel Scone recalled, "and the late earl of Blessington gave him particular marks of his attention and regard as so near affinity to his family, and, upon the death of his lordship's only son, he by, will (1760) devised to Mr. (Charles) Stewart's only son then living (William) the estate of Rathmelton, but he (William) died before the earl of Blessington (1769)
a fatal casualty in performing some fear of horsemanship at Bath. The horse struck him on the head as he stooped to pick up his whip from the ground while his horse was in full gallop. It is said that the earl of Blessington when dying regretted that he had not- by his will continued the inheritance of the Rathmelton estate to the uncle (Annesley Stewart) of this young gentleman and was desirous of adding a codicil to his will for that purpose, in favor of the present [living] Sir Annesley Stewart, but died before it could be effected." Sir Annesley later got it by purchase." (Source - Stewart Clan Magazine, Tome H, Volume 37, Number 7, January 1960) 
Stewart, Charles (I1981)
39 "Chesty Child

Last week the Standard Oil Co. of Indiana, chesty child of a potent tribe, made a few announcements

1) Its net earnings for 1926 were $62,500,000-$6.03 a share- 13.68% on the capital invested.

2) It has changed its president. Dr. William M. Burton, who "cracked" petroleum so hard that it yielded twice as much gasoline, was granted his wish to retire, was succeeded by Edward G. Seubert, a onetime newsboy. Soon, no doubt, the success magazines will be asking Mr. Seubert for the story of his rise. It is an epitome of the great U. S. biography, a machinist's helper at 15, a bookkeeper whose accounts balanced, a chief clerk who plugged, a vice president -one of the faithful rewarded when he reached a healthy 50.

3) Robert H. McElroy and Edward J. Bullock, both of whom had served the Standard Oil long and faithfully, were lifted to the rank of vice president.

These announcements and most maneuvers of importance in the Standard Oil Co. of Indiana are the work of a burly lawyer-Colonel Robert Wright Stewart, chairman of the board of directors. He did not rise from the bottom. He broke in at the middle and puffed out the chest of the Indiana oilcan. Babbitts could not understand how he did it. He had played football at Coe College (Iowa), plunged into the law at Yale, cavorted with Theodore Roosevelt's Rough Riders, dabbled in politics in South Dakota. But he was and is a shrewd lawyer. The Standard Oil wanted him. Soon the general counsel was made chairman of the board (1918).* He summoned lethargic directors to thrice-weekly meetings, made them agree unanimously on every decision. Under the Stewart impetus the company grew big with physical properties and profits. More than 15,000
employe stockholders shared the resulting pleasures.

Mr. Stewart's biggest coup came in 1925 when he combined the Pan-American Petroleum Co. (Edward L. Doheny's mainspring) and the British Mexican Co. with the Standard Oil Co. of Indiana. And that is why some say that Mr. Stewart is the toughest and least stoppable fullback in the oil field.

* A not unusual practice among great corporations within the last two decades." (Source - Time Magazine, Monday March 14, 1927)

"Rockefeller v. Stewart

The annual meeting of the stockholders of Standard Oil Co. of Indiana will be held on March 7. Only a handful of the 58,000 stockholders* will be present. But practically every stockholder will be represented by a proxy, for a bitter fight is to be settled. One group of proxies will be held by a representative of John Davison Rockefeller Jr. The other will be held by Col.Robert Wright Stewart. The fight is over the re-election of Colonel Stewart as Chairman of the Board.

On the day last week when Mr. Rockefeller Jr. was gazing at the Rock of Gibraltar, en route to Egypt on an expedition with famed Digger James Henry Breasted of the University of Chicago, the Rockefeller office in Manhattan made public a letter which he had written to the stockholders of Standard Oil of Indiana.

In the letter, Mr. Rockefeller Jr. told how he had lost confidence in Colonel Stewart's leadership because of Colonel Stewart's testimony before the Senate Committee on Public Lands, concerning the oil scandals; how he had asked for Colonel Stewart's resignation last April; how Colonel Stewart has continued to ignore his request. "I am therefore," wrote Mr. Rockefeller Jr., "asking the stockholders of the company to join me in opposing his re-election."

Forthwith Colonel Stewart returned from Manhattan to Chicago with the words: "If the Rockefellers want to fight, I'll show them how to fight. . . . I may be mistaken, but it seems to me that I owe fully as much to the person holding ten shares of Standard Oil of Indiana. . . as I may owe one who has so much wealth that he has to hire experts to spend his income for him."

In his Chicago office, Colonel Stewart received reporters, photographers, talked freely, posed pleasantly. He was confident of enough proxies to secure reelection.

Meanwhile, Frank J. Hogan, smart lawyer for Colonel Stewart, pointed out that the oil man had been tried and acquitted of charges of contempt and perjury growing out of his testimony before the Senate committee. Lawyer Hogan made public a statement signed by the twelve jurors of the perjury trial, saying: "It was our intention that our
verdict should stand as a vindication of Colonel Stewart."

Editorially, most metropolitan newspapers supported Mr. Rockefeller Jr. Said the conservative New York Evening Post: "He [Rockefeller] is right. The other position is only a variation of a famous exclamation to make it read, 'principle be damned.

" Practically, Wall Street estimated that previous to the Rockefeller letter only 17% of Standard Oil of Indiana stock was in Rockefeller hands, while Colonel Stewart and allies controlled 51%.

It was not entirely clear, last week, who would be the Rockefeller candidate for Chairman of the Board. Nor was it clear why Mr. Rockefeller Jr. had gone to Egypt on the eve of his biggest fight.

*Standard Oil Co. of Indiana has issued 9,160,000 shares of capital stock. President E. G. Seubert of Standard Oil Co. of Indiana was mentioned in the Rockefeller letter as a "loyal and devoted" leader. But he had long been considered a Stewart man. Now he may be the crux of the battle." (Source - Time Magazine Monday January 21, 1929)

Teapot Dome

"Teapot Dome Scandal also called the Oil Reserves, or Elk Hills, Scandal, in American history, scandal of the early 1920s surrounding the secret leasing of federal oil reserves by the secretary of the interior, Albert B. Fall. After President Warren G. Harding transferred supervision of the naval oil reserve lands from the navy to the Department of the Interior in 1921, Fall secretly granted to Harry F. Sinclair of the Mammoth Oil Company exclusive rights to the Teapot Dome (Wyoming) reserves (April 7, 1922). He granted similar rights to Edward L. Doheny of Pan American Petroleum Company for the Elk Hills and Buena Vista Hills reserves in California (1921-22). In return for the leases, Fall received large cash gifts and no-interest "loans."

When the affair became known, Congress directed President Harding to cancel the leases; the Supreme Court declared the leases fraudulent and ruled illegal Harding's transfer of authority to Fall. Although the president himself was not implicated in the transactions that had followed the transfer, the revelations of his associates' misconduct took a severe toll on his health; disillusioned and exhausted, he died before the full extent of the wrongdoing had been determined. Fall was convicted of accepting a bribe in the Elk Hills negotiations and imprisoned. Doheny and Sinclair were acquitted of charges of bribery and criminal conspiracy, but Sinclair spent 6 1/2 months in prison for contempt of court and contempt of the U.S. Senate. Although the secretary of the navy, Edwin Denby, had signed all the leases, he was cleared of all charges. While "Teapot Dome" entered the American political vocabulary as a synonym for governmental corruption, the scandal had little long-term effect on the Republican Party. Calvin Coolidge, a Republican, was elected president in 1924." (Source- Encyclopedia Britannica)

Stewart, Colonel Robert Wright (I1331)
40 "Colonel Galbraith was appointed deputy surveyor November 4, 1791, and while acting as such, took up large tracts in Lykens Valley, but, dying before patents were issued to him, his heirs lost all of them in the numberless litigations which ensued." (Source - Egle's Pennsylvania Genealogies, page 231) Galbraith, Colonel Bertram (I0350)
41 "David I bestowed great lands and possessions on Walter and declared him to be High Steward of Scotland from which title the family name of Stewart afterwards derived." (Source - The Stewart Society)

"The High Steward, in his first battle (Battle of the Standard - Northallerton, 22 August 1138), was second-in-command of the right wing, under Prince Henry, King David I's eldest son. They led a successful assault on the English left and drove their enemy from the field. But victory slipped from the Scottish grasp and all day the battle wavered until the Scots realized that they were not going to defeat Thurstan and his holy standard. Although claimed as a victory by the English, the Scots withdrew to the north in good order, baffled rather than defeated, and regrouped at the place afterwards called Scotch corner, near the Yorkshire/Durham border. The Scots finally withdrew as part of the terms of the Treaty of Durham in April 1139, when the River Tees was agreed to become the border between Scotland and England, only the castles of Bamborough and Newcastle being retained by the English." (Source - The Stewart Society)

"Paisley Abbey was founded as a priory about 1164 by Walter Fitz Alan, 1st High Steward of Scotland. Recent archaeological and historical studies have confirmed the importance of the 12 century monastery and church at Paisley. Founded by Walter the High Steward with monks from the Cluniac Monastery at Much Wentlock in Shropshire, the priory at Paisley soon became a site of importance and wealth, owning lands throughout the southwest of Scotland and supported by major land-owning families. The farthest north of the Cluniac houses in Europe, Paisley was raised to the status of an abbey in 1219. Continued support from the Stewart family, and later from the royal house of Scotland, emphasized and augmented the abbey in importance.

The attraction of the local saint, St. Mirin, brought the site to prominence as one of the four major pilgrimage shrines in Scotland. Pilgrimage was encouraged by the Cluniacs and the monks built a daughter monastery at Crossraguel, later also raised to abbatial status, which stood exactly half way between Paisley and the next major centre of pilgrimage at Withorn. By the Reformation in 1560 Paisley was the fourth-wealthiest monastery in Scotland. The lands were transferred to the Hamilton family who subsequently became Dukes of Abercorn. Parts of the site have been demolished and built over on two occasions, with the building of the New Town of Paisley in the 16th century and the modern municipal building in the 20th.

Archaeological discoveries, especially of the great medieval drain of the monastery, have increased awareness in the importance of the site in Scotland's history and as a place of continuous worship since the 12th century. Silt from the drain contained artefacts and botanical remains of international importance." (Source - The Stewarts, Volume XX No4 (1999), pages 264-265.  
Alan, Walter Fitz (I0203)
42 "Died in this borough [Carlisle, PA] on Friday last [25 Jan 1861] Mrs. Sarah W. Gibson, relict of the late Chief Justice Gibson, aged about 70 years. American Volunteer, Thursday January 31, 1861." Galbraith, Sarah Work (I1539)
43 "During Jost's life, the Simmern line of princes were extinguished; they had ruled the area from 1559 to 1685. The Zweibruken-Neuberg line of Dukes came in power. The Neubergs were Catholics and their oppressive measures against their Protestant subjects inspired many to immigrate to William Penn's land. The Zweibrucken area became part of the Palatine (Pfalz) in 1685." (Source - Riegell to Riggle, page 8) Riegell, Jost (I1681)
44 "He became engaged in the milling business with his father in 1851, and with his brother W. A. Craig, in 1866, and they now fun a flour, grist and saw mill un de the firm name of W.F. & W.A. Craig. W. F.Craing owns a fine farm of 140 acres." Craig, William Ferguson (I4113)
45 "He either died or left the country before June 11, 1734, when his brother Ezekiel made his will, for he is not mentioned in that document." (Source - Stewart Clan Mgazine, Tome i, Vllume 37, February 1969) Stewart, Richard (I0212)
46 "Henry Harrison Hartman, second child of John William and Susan (Fulmer) Hartman, was born in Columbia Co., PA, on December 14, 1835. When he was about four years old he came to Clarion Co. with his father and grandfather. At the age of 17 he became an apprentice carpenter with Samuel Kifer of Callensburg, PA. While working at the carpenter trade, he resided for six months in Kentucky and almost got drafted into the Confederate Army before he could get out of Kentucky. In 1868 he bought 40 acres of land at Mt. Airy (the Rolly Hartman place) and married Susan Stewart, the youngest daughter of Thomas Stewart. After two years on this farm he traded his farm for a larger farm near Licking Creek called the 'lower place.' He lived there for fourteen years then bought his Uncle Charles Fulmer's farm at Mt. Airy. They attended the Grace Reformed Church at Curllsville, PA." (Heber Rankin, 1958)

Hartman, Henry Harrison (I0464)
47 "I believe that Mary Smith Milligan is a sister to my great-grandmother, Clarinda Smith Tribley. Clarinda's father was Theophilus (Porter Twp., Clarion co.) and mother was Jeanette (Jane) Girts. Theo and Jane had children Emily A., Anna E., Rosanna, Clarinda (Florinda in 1860), Nancy, Jeanette or Jewett (Assemuth J. in 1880), Maggie Ida, Sarah, George. I believe the person listed as age 33 in the 1860 census is also a child named Sabella (or Isabella), maybe it was meant to read 3/12. Sabella's name is on one of 5 small stones near Theo's grave.

Also on the 1860 census are Archibald and Mary E.. I've always believed that Theo had a first marriage and these were children of his first marriage. In 1850 children John, Martha, Archibald, and Mary E. were living in the household of Theophilus and Martha Lowery Smith, Plumcreek (now South Bend) Township, Armstrong County. In the same household there are also two other adults, John and Nancy Smith. Theo the younger was living in the Harmon Girts household in Porter Township, Clarion Co. He married Harmon's daughter. I'm not completely "positive" that Theo the younger is father to John, Martha, Archibald, and Mary E., even though Archibald and Mary E. are listed where children should be listed on the 1860 census. John (adult) from the 1850 census died in 1854 and the death record is blank for surviving wife and children.

It appears that Mary and William named their first three children after Mary's brothers and sister. Maybe a new clue...... John Brinker Milligan. Brinker could be the maiden name of Mary's mother."

(Source - Excerpts from an e-mail from Kathy Zagorac great-grandaughter of Clarinda Smith Tribley.) 
Smith, Theophilus (I4010)
48 "I contacted the British Historical Society in Kews, Egland and did come up with 3 Alexander Craig's but was not satisfied that any of them fit - one may have.

"I also hired a researcher thinking that if I could find out from Alexander's records where he was from on entering the Army that I would know where they lived. Also got addresses for all the Craigs in the area of Ballymoney and wrote a slew of letters, getting no responses. My thinking was that if William walked to the port he sailed out of it may have been the River Bann. No luck as apparently the river is quite shallow but a lot of them did leave from Portrush." (Source - Information furnished by Pegi Males Nelson)

Craig, Alexander (I4158)
49 "In 1672, William was elected stadtholder, captain-general, and admiral. He fought the French who invaded Holland. In 1677 he married Mary the eldest daughter of James, Duke of York, later King James II of England. In July 1688 James opponents asked William to come to England, he agreed and landed in Torbay, with 15,000 men on November 5, 1688. Most of the English nobility declared for William, and James fled to France. On February 13, 1689, William and Mary were proclaimed joint sovereigns of England. Shortly after "the Glorious Revolution", the Scottish parliament accepted the new rulers. Catholic Ireland, remained loyal to James and in March he landed there.

"On July 1, 1690 the two Kings faced each other across the River Boyne. The Battle of Boyne was fought for control of Dublin. By evening King William had won a decisive victory, preserved the Protestant settlement in Ireland and drove King James into permanent exile. It was a great victory for William.

"The following year Jacobite hopes were finished at the battle of Aughrim in County Galway. Shortly after Aughrim the final surrender was signed at Limerick. The Treaty of Limerick was mainly a military document which ensured that the Jacobite army were allowed to leave Ireland and fight in France. The civil articles which promised freedom of religion were never honoured." (Source - Kevin Sweeney, Copyright, 1997) 
Orange, William of (I1939)
50 "James Stewart, baptized Oct. 25, 1687, succeeded his brother Richard in the Irish parliament as representative for County Tyrone. He was rather dilatory about getting married, but he finally chose a cousin. He was married on Feb. 15, 1731, to Rebecca Stewart, elder daughter and co-heiress of Robert Stewart, esq., of Castle-rothery, in County Wicklow. Robert was a Son of George Stewart and grandson of Sir Robert Stewart, younger brother of 'Sir William, the first baronet of Rathmelton and Newtown-Stewart. Rev, Samuel Scone told, in his rambling reminiscences of the Stewart families in North Ireland, this story: "James, a younger Brother of Charles, I have often seen in Dublin. He was a major of the Irish artillery. He was married and had an only child, a son who lived to be seven or eight years old. By attempting to breed this child hardy and taking him abroad in cold weather to walk on the north wall of the River Liffey, the boy got cold, and in consequence a fever of which he died, during the life of his father." Maj. Stewart resigned from the artillery train in January, 1747, and died Mar. 9, the same year." (Source - Stewart Clan Magazine, Tome I, Volume 37, February 1960) Stewart, James (I1990)

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