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201 Elisabetha Krantz appears on the Hunter Subsistence Lists on March 25, 1711 with one person over 10 years of age. Her first husband Conrad made his first appearance on the Hunter Lists (#406) on July 1, 1710 with 2 persons over 10 years and one person under 10. Conrad apparently died sometime between July 1, 1710 and March 25, 1711. There is no further references to the one child under 10 years of age when Elisabetha married Johann Michael Emerich on December 18, 1711. Both Elisabeth and Johann Michael would have been about 29 years of age when they married in 1711. Krantz, Elisabetha Nee (I0401)
202 Elmer P. Walls January 30, 1937 CLARION CO. PORTER TWP. 72 yrs 3mo 3 days Unknown
Burial Cemetery Lot Section Undertaker
02/02/1937 Rimersburg 1 C.B. STEWART
Survivors Notes
Walls, Elmer P. (I0362)
203 Emerick ancestors are listed under a variety of spellings, Emmerich, Emerich, Emerick, Emrich and Emrick. As a general rule they are listed as Emerick, except for my direct ancestors, Christoff Emmerich; his son Christoff Emmerich Jr.; his son, Henrich Emmerich; his son, Johann Michael Emmerich, in order that I might be better able to identify them in tracing the family tree through early church records, wills, etc. Notwithstanding this, Johann Michael is listed as Emmerich, Emerich, Emrich and finally Emerick, as in his will probated July 31, 1744 in Berks County, Pennsylvania. (Note to file by J. P. Rhein)

Delkenheim is five kilometers southeast of Wiesbaden, the church book begins 1652. (Source - The Palatine Families of New York, page 208)

Delkenheim is now a part of Wiesbaden, which is in the Frankfurt/Main area, in the German state of Hesse. (Note to file - J.P. Rhein)

"When we talk about Germans we must recall that when our ancestors came to this country in the 17th and 18th centuries they did not come from Germany for there was no Germany as we know it. It was a general term, but Germany was officially called the Holy Roman Empire. This included not only present-day Germany, but also parts of France and Poland. At one time it included all of Switzerland." (Source - Pages From the Past, Palatines to America Publications, 1992, Number 2)


The Holy Roman Empire, political entity in western Europe from 800 to 1806. Although the borders of the empire shifted greatly throughout its history, its principal area was always that of the German states. From the 10th century its rulers were elected German kings who usually sought, but did not always receive, imperial coronation by the popes in Rome.

The Holy Roman Empire was an attempt to revive the Western Roman Empire, whose legal and political structure deteriorated during the 5th and 6th centuries. Although the Byzantine Empire retained nominal sovereignty over the Western Empire, its influence was eclipsed in the west with the coalescence of the Germanic tribes into independent Christian kingdoms during the 6th and 7th centuries.

The spiritual influence of the western division of the church expanded simultaneously. Lacking any military force or practical administration, the church decided to confer imperial status on the dominant western European power. In 800, Pope Leo III crowned Frankish king Charlemagne as emperor. This act established a papal claim to the right to select, crown, and even depose emperors. This was asserted, at least in theory, for nearly 700 years. In its primary stage, the resurrected Western Empire endured only a short time after the death of Charlemagne in 814. However, the popes maintained the imperial organization and title for most of the 9th century.

The empire in the West, at first an unstable union of Germany and northern Italy and later a loose union of Germanic states, remained in almost continuous existence for more than 800 years. During this phase the empire played a significant role in central European politics and ecclesiastical affairs. A central feature of this period was the struggle between the popes and the emperors for control of the church.

In 1157 Emperor Frederick I tried to suppress both the restless nobles of Germany and the self-governing cities of Italy. He was defeated at Legnano in 1176 by the cities of the Lombard League, who thus established their independence from imperial authority. Emperor Frederick II renewed imperial efforts to vanquish the Italian cities and the papacy in the 13th century, but he was unsuccessful.

The death of Frederick II in 1250 left the imperial throne vacant, and two rival candidates attempted to win support for their claims. The office was little more than honorary, however, as the empire comprised a loose confederation of sovereign states and principalities. During the reign of Emperor Charles V (1519-1558), the concept of a temporal state in harmony with the spiritual dominions of the church crumbled beneath the tenets of the Protestant Reformation. In 1555 the Religious Peace of Augsburg permitted each free city and state of Germany to exercise choice between the adoption of Lutheranism or Catholicism. With the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, which ended the Thirty Years' War, the empire lost all remaining sovereignty over its constituent states. The later Habsburg emperors were concerned mainly with aggrandizement of their dominions in Austria. Because of well-founded fears that Napoleon I of France intended to annex the imperial title, Francis II dissolved the empire in 1806. (Source - The Encarta 99 Desk Encyclopedia Copyright @ & (p) 1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved)

Holy Roman Emperors

Carolingian Kings and Emperors

800-14 Charlemagne (Charles the Great)

814-40 Louis the Pious

840-55 Lothair I

855-75 Louis II

875-77 Charles II the Bald

881-87 Charles III the Fat

891-94 Guido of Spoleto

892-98 Lambert of Spoleto (coemperor)

896-901 Arnulf (rival)

901-05 Louis III of Provence

905-24 Berengar

911-18 Conrad I of Franconia (rival)

Saxon Kings and Emporers

918-36 Henry I the Fowler

936-73 Otto I the Great

973-83 Otto II

983-1002 Otto III

1002-24 Henry II the Saint

Franconian (Salian) Emperors

1024-39 Conrad II

1039-56 Henry III the Black

1056-1106 Henry IV

1077-80 Rudolf of Swabia (rival)

1081-93 Hermann of Luxembourg (rival)

1093-1101 Conrad of Franconia (rival)

1106-25 Henry V

1126-37 Lothair II

Hohenstaufen Kings and Emperors

1138-52 Conrad III

1152-90 Frederick Barbarossa

1190-97 Henry VI

1198-1215 Otto IV

1198-1208 Philip of Swabia (rival)

1215-50 Frederick II

1246-47 Henry Raspe of Thuringia (rival)

1247-56 William of Holland (rival)

1250-54 Conrad IV

1254-73 no ruler (the Great Interregnum)

Rules from Various Noble Families

1257-72 Richard of Cornwall (rival)

1257-73 Alfonso X of Castile (rival)

1273-91 Rudolf I, Hapsburg

1292-98 Adolf I of Nassau

1298-1308 Albert I, Hapsburg

1308-13 Henry VII, Luxembourg

1314-47 Louis IV of Bavaria

1314-25 Frederick of Hapsburg (co regent)

1347-78 Charles IV, Luxembourg

1378-1400 Wenceslas of Bohemia

1400 Frederick III of Brunswick

1400-10 Rupert of the Palatinate

1411-37 Sigismund, Luxembourg

Hapsburg Emperors

1438-39 Albert II

1440-93 Frederick III

1493-1519 Maximilian I

1519-56 Charles V

1556-64 Ferdinand I

1564-76 Maximilian II

1576-1612 Rudolf II

1612-19 Matthias

1619-37 Ferdinand II

1637-57 Ferdinand III

1658-1705 Leopold I

1705-11 Joseph I

1711-40 Charles VI

1742-45 Charles VII of Bavaria

Hapsburg-Lorraine Emperors

1745-65 Francis I of Lorraine

1765-90 Joseph II

1790-92 Leopold II

1792-1806 Francis II

(Source - The Encarta 99 New World Almanac, Copyright 1998, Helicon Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved)

"The history of the Holy Roman Empire can be divided into four periods: the age of emperors, the age of princes, the early Habsburg period, and the final phase.

(i)Age of the Emperors

The first age, from 962 to 1250, was dominated by the strong emperors of the Saxon, Salian (or Franconian), and Hohenstaufen dynasties. These emperors made serious efforts to control Italy, which in practical political terms was the most important part of the empire. Their power, however, depended on their German resources, which were never great. Italy consisted of the Lombard area, with its wealthy towns; the Papal States; scattered regions still claimed by the Byzantine Empire; and the Norman kingdom of Naples and Sicily. The emperors generally tried to govern through existing officials such as counts and bishops rather than by creating a direct administrative system. The papacy, weak and disturbed by the Roman aristocracy, needed the emperors, who, during the Saxon and early Salian generations, thought of the Bishop of Rome as subject to the same kind of control that they exercised over their own German bishops. Henry III, for example, deposed unsatisfactory Popes and nominated new ones as he deemed fit.

During the reigns of Henry IV and Henry V in the late 11th and early 12th centuries, the papacy was influenced by a powerful reform movement that demanded an end to lay domination. Popes Gregory VII and Urban II insisted on independence for the papacy and for the church in general during the Investiture Controversy. Later Popes continued jealously to guard their freedom, and this produced conflict with the Hohenstaufen emperors Frederick I and Frederick II, both of whom wanted to exercise control over all of Italy. The later Hohenstaufen emperors gained control of the Norman kingdom in southern Italy and declared it a fief of the popes, who nevertheless worried about their independence and often supported the emperors'Lombard foes. In the 13th century, Popes Innocent 111, Gregory IX, and Innocent IV restricted the authority of Otto IV and Frederick 11 in many bitter disputes.

(ii) Age of the Princes

During the age of the princes, from 1250 to 1438, the emperors were much weaker. They exercised minimal authority in Italy, and many of them were never crowned emperor by the pope. Even in Germany their power was reduced, for Frederick II had dissipated royal prerogatives and resources in his northern lands while struggling to dominate Italy. The emperors were unable to restrain the German nobles or to resist French encroachments on the western frontiers of the empire, and the Slavic rulers in the east rejected all imperial overlordship. The Guelphs, or anti-imperialists in Italy (see Guelfs and Ghibellines), spoke of ending the empire or transferring it to the French kings. Political theorists such as Engelbert of Admont (1250-1331), Alexander of Roes (late 13th century), and even Dante, however, insisted that the German emperors were needed. Marsilius of Padua, in his Defensorpacis, argued for the end of all papal influence on the empire.

At this time the practice of electing the German king, or emperor, was given formal definition by the Golden Bull (1356) of Emperor Charles IV. This document, which defined the status of the seven German princely electors, made it clear that the emperor held office by election rather than hereditary right. The electors usually chose insignificant rulers who could not interfere with the electors' privileges, but such rulers could neither govern effectively nor maintain imperial rights. Their power was largely limited to strengthening their own families. The empire consequently began to disintegrate into nearly independent territories or self-governing groups such as the Hanseatic League.

(iii)Early Hapsburg Period

Afler 1438 the electors almost always chose a member of the Hapsburg dynasty of Austria as king;the one exception was the election (1742) of the Bavarian Charles VII. The Habsburg Frederick III was the last emperor to be crowned in Rome; his great-grandson Charles V was the last to be crowned by a pope.

By this time a few of the more farsighted princes saw the need to strengthen the empire's central government. From 1485 to 1555 these reformers strove to create a federal system. The diet, originally a loose assembly of princes, had been organized into three strata--electors, princes, and representatives of the imperial cities--by the Golden Bull and came to resemble a legislature. In 1500 it was proposed that an executive committee (Reichsregiment) appointed by the diet be given administrative authority. A system of imperial courts was created, and permanent institutions to provide for defense and taxation were also discussed. The various states were organized into ten districts or circles.

These reform efforts seldom worked, however, because the princes would not relinquish their jurisdiction. The situation was further complicated by the advent of the Reformation, which fostered religious conflicts that divided the principalities against one another. In addition, the princes became alarmed at the sudden growth of power of the Habsburgs when that dynasty acquired Spain. Under the guise of the Counter-Reformation, Ferdinand II and Ferdinand III tried to concentrate power in their hands, but defeat in the Thirty Years' War undid their efforts and proved that the empire could not reform itself.

(iv) Final Phase

After the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) the Holy Roman Empire was little more than a loose confederation of about 300 independent principalities and 1,500 or more semi-sovereign bodies or individuals. Threats from the Ottoman Empire or from Louis XIV of France occasionally stimulated imperial cooperation, but usually each state considered only its own welfare. The Austrian-Prussian wars, Hanover's acquisition of the English throne, and Saxony's holding of the Polish crown exemplify the particularism that prevailed.

Napoleon I finally destroyed the empire. After defeating Austria and its imperial allies in 1797 and 1801, he annexed some German land and suggested that the larger territories compensate themselves by confiscating the free cities and ecclesiastical states. By the Diet's Recess (1803), 112 small states were thus seized by their neighbors. Three years later Napoleon compelled 16 German states to form the Confederation of the Rhine and to secede from the empire. On March 6, 1806, Francis II, who had previously assumed the title of Emperor of Austria, abdicated as Holy Roman Emperor and declared the old empire dissolved."

(Source - Raymond H. Schmatidt; Barraclough, Geoffrey, The Origins of Modern Germany, 2d rev. ed. (1947; repr. 1984) Bryce, James, The Holy Roman Empire, rev. ed. (I 978), Heer, Friedrich, The Holy Roman Empire, trans. by Janet Sondheimer (1968), Zophy, Jonathan W.,ed., Holy Roman Empire: A Dictionary Handbook (1980), From the 1995 Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia, Copyright 1995 Grolier Incorporated, From the article "Holy Roman Empire," Microsoft Encarta'95)

Emmerich, Christoff (I0637)
204 Enlisted Comany H, 155th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry on August 22, 1862 for three years. Promoted from corporal to sergeant on March 24, 1863; to first sergeant January 10, 1865; mustered out with company June 2, 1865.  Craig, Washington Adams (I4109)
205 Enlisted in U. S. Navy October 5, 1942 to November 1, 1945 Williamsburg, Virginia. Construction Battalion, USNTC, Darisville, Rhoad Island. USNH Shoemaker, California. Sherman, Wesley Eugene (I3774)
206 ERIE - Francis S. Burns,67, of 6820 Wattsburg Road, died Thursday morning at his residence. Mr. Burns was owner and operator of Burns Service Station, Burns Mobile Home Park and Burns Twisty-Freeze Dairy Bar, all on the Wattsburg Road. He had been a resident of the Erie community for 26 years. Mr. Burns was born January 29,1907, in Clarion County, a son of the late Alonzo and Mabel McNaughton Burns. He was married to V. Avonell McKinney Burns, who survives. He was a member of the Prince of Peace Lutheran Church of Erie, East Erie Turners, Sligo Lodge I00F and St. Boniface Ushers Club. Surviving along with his wife, Mrs. V. Avonell Burns, are a daughter, Mrs. Maxine Lerch of Erie; three grandchildren; three great-grandchildren; a sister, Mrs. Preston (Dauphine) Blair of Sharon; and two aunts. He was preceded in death by his parents; a sister, Sarah Burns and a son - in - law, Fred M. Lerch on June 14, 1974. The family will receive friends from 2 to 5 and 7 to 9 pm today and Sunday at the Russell C. Schmidt and Son Funeral Home at 2926 Pine Ave. in Erie. Funeral services will be held al 11 am Monday in the funeral home with Rev. John W. Tickner, pastor of Prince of Peace Lutheran Church, officiating. Interment will be in Wintergreen Gorge Cemetery. Derrick (Oil City, Pa), Saturday, Nov. 2, 1974. Pg 16

Pamela Myers-Grewell  
Burns, Francis S. (I2696)
207 Eventual heiress of Murrough Viscount Blessenton who brought into the Stewart Family the Boyle estate in Wicklow and Kildare, as well as the Manor of Silchester in Hampshire. (Source - The Irish Times, Saturday, November 10, 1940) Boyle, Anne (I1368)
208 Excerpts from Historical Background of the Pennsylvania Militia

At the outbreak of hostilities between the Crown and the colonies in 1775 the Pennsylvania Assembly opposed any form of mandatory military service. During this period, activist elements among Pennsylvania's population organized local volunteer "associations" that were eventually formed into fifty-three battalions. These voluntary "Associators" never represented more than a fraction of the state's total population. When General Washington asked for the middle Atlantic states to provide additional reinforcements willing to serve for six months duty in 1776, the Associator units were tapped as a manpower pool, though the individual units did not themselves become part of the Pennsylvania Line forces. The individuals who volunteered at this time were formed into battalions by county and were known as "Flying Camps" that served on active duty until November 30, 1776. By the end of that year, Pennsylvania had adopted a new more radical constitution that wrested control from the older conservative Assembly and in early 1777 the new Assembly passed Pennsylvania's first militia law requiring compulsory military service.

The "Act to Regulate the Militia of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania" passed 17 March 1777, and the subsequent Militia Act passed March 20, 1780, together with their amendments, required all white men between the ages of 18 and 53 capable of bearing arms to serve two months of militia duty on a rotating basis. Refusal to turn out for military exercises would result in a fine, the proceeds from which were used to hire substitutes. Though the act provided exemptions for members of the Continental Congress, Pennsylvania's Supreme Executive Council, Supreme Court judges, masters and teachers of colleges, ministers of the Gospel, and indentured servants, as a practical matter anyone could avoid serving either by filing an appeal to delay their service for a period of time or by paying a fine to hire a substitute. (It should be noted, however, that a person serving as a substitute for someone else was not thereby excused from also serving in their own turn.) The act called for eight battalion districts to be created in Philadelphia and in each of the eleven extant counties. The geographical boundaries for each district were drawn so as to raise between 440 to 680 men fit for active duty as determined by information contained in the local tax rolls. A County Lieutenant holding the rank of colonel was responsible for implementing the law with the assistenance of sub-lieutenants who held the rank of lieutenant colonel.

Though they held military titles, these were actually civilian officers not to be confused with the military officers holding the same ranks in the Continental Army. The County Lieutenants ensured that militia units turned out for military exercises, provided the militia units with arms and equipment at the expense of the state, located substitutes for those who declined to serve, and assessed and collected the militia fines. It should be noted that these fines were not necessarily intended to be punitive. Recognizing that personal circumstances might in some cases make it inconvenient or even impossible for a particular individual to serve, the fine system was in part devised to provide money in lieu of service in order to hire substitutes. It also provided an avenue for conscientious objectors to fulfill their legal obligation to the state without compromising their religious convictions.

The men in each battalion elected their own field officers who carried the rank of colonel, lieutenant colonel and major and these officers were then commissioned by the state and expected to serve for three years. Within each county, the colonels drew lots for their individual rank, which was then assigned to their battalion as First Battallion, Second Battalion, Third Battalion, etc. When new elections were held for field officers in 1780 and 1783, the colonels elected at that time again drew lots for their rank and this resulted in a new order for the battalions. The names of men in each company of each battalion were listed on a roll called "General Returns of the Battalion" together with the names of any substitutes that were provided. On these permanent billet rolls the men in each company were listed as being either part of the first class, second class, third class, etc. and were required to show up for their two months of active duty at the time and in the order that their class was called up. When several classes were called up for active duty, a separate roll for each company listed the names of the men who actually served, either in person or as substitutes. This active-duty roll was therefore a completely different roll from the permanent billet roll. These active duty rolls could be distinguished from the permanent billet rolls by the fact that instead of being listed by individual classes as they were in the permanent rolls, the names of the men were here listed under the name of the company captain. Under the provisions of the Militia Law, the men called up for active duty were automatically assigned to companies whose numbers were different from their own company numbers on the permanent billet rolls. They were instead the numbers of the battalions from which the men came! For example, men listed on the permanent roll as belonging to the 2nd Class of the 7th Company of the 6th Battalion would in the active duty battalion be automatically placed in the 6th Company of the 2nd (Active Duty) Battalion. Since the company captain and lower officers were also called up, their identities provide a clue to the permanent class, company, and battalion to which a particular individual belonged. The battalion colonels, lieutenant colonels, and majors were called to active duty in a specific order. For example, when the 1st Class was called up, the colonel of the 1st Battalion, the lieutenant colonel of the 2nd Battalion, and the major of the 3rd Battalion entered into service commanding the 1st Class active-duty Battalion. For the 2nd Class, the colonel of the 2nd Battalion, lieutenant colonel of the First Battalion, and major of the 4th Battalion entered service in command of the 2nd Class active-duty battalion. For the rotation of field officers on active duty, it was therefore necessary to substitute Colonel for Captain, Lieutenant Colonel for 1st Lieutenant, Major for 2nd Lieutenant, etc in the column under each Battalion for Company. After each tour of duty was completed, all of the privates and the company and field officers were returned to their permanent battalion billets. For this reason, a separate permanent billet record and an active duty record would have existed for each individual who saw active duty.

When the classes were called up, each captain would deliver a notice to each man's dwelling or place of business. Under the provisions of the Militia Act, each individual summoned had the right to file an appeal asking that their service be delayed and some successfully avoided service by repeatedly filing appeals. The names of these individuals will be found on the appeal lists. The names of those who actually turned out for muster duty would then appear on company muster rolls listing the men in their new arrangement. Some of the muster rolls provide the date when duty began, and in the case of officers, the date of their commission, and perhaps some additional comments indicating such types of information as whether they were detached on special duty or the dates of any desertions. Most of the muster rolls that have survived were made up just before the men were discharged from duty. Tabulated company returns were periodically compiled from the muster rolls and from these the adjutants for each battalion compiled battalion returns that were then tabulated by the muster master general of the brigade and submitted to the brigadier general in the form of a general return (not to be confused with the Battalion General Return mentioned above). Company returns, battalion returns, and brigade returns were nearly always filled out on standard printed forms when these were available. While all of these types of records reflect enrollment in the militia, only the muster rolls of the actual marching companies demonstrate actual service while the fine books and appeal books are evidence of lack of actual service. (When an individual filed an appeal, they could also, however, be placed into a later class.) When active service occurred, it would have been for only sixty days at a time.

Also important to understand is that the 1777 Militia Act automatically expired in 1780 and was immediately replaced by a new Militia Act that also lasted for three years and was superceded by a third Militia Act in 1783. The men elected new officers at this time and the militia battalions were renumbered according to the relative seniority of their commanders. For example, what had been Colonel White's 1st York County Battalion continued to be made up of the same men, but could now be designated as perhaps Colonel Black's 7th York County Battalion. The company commanders could also change. For this reason, a particular private might be listed in a different battalion in 1781 than he was in 1778 but this does not necessarily mean that he was transferred between units or changed residence. Most of the service rendered by members of the Pennsylvania Militia fell into one of three categories. They were either used to augment the operations of the Continental Line such as when some of the Associators accompanied General Washington in crossing the Delaware in January 1777. Other examples of this type of service include the large numbers of Pennsylvania militia employed in the summer and autumn of 1777 to oppose the British invasion at Brandywine and on the flanks at the battle of Germantown, though in neither case did they actually see action. The militia did provide a significant defensive force patrolling the south side of the Schuylkill River and engaged in occasional clashes with British outposts and scouting parties including heavy skirmishes at Whitemarsh on December 7. Due to the sixty-day turnover, however, none of the men who were at Brandywine in September would have been present at Whitemarsh in December. It is known that no Pennsylvania militia served at Valley Forge, Monmouth, or Yorktown. The second type of service was duty on the frontier in Northumberland, Northampton, Bedford and Westmoreland counties. Occasionally, militia reinforcements from Cumberland, Lancaster, and York counties would be brought in to reinforce these frontiers as occurred in the summer of 1778. A third type of militia duty was in providing guards for supply depots located in Lancaster, Lebanon and Reading and at various prisoner of war camps.
Riegel, Simon (I0068)
209 Fairfield County, Marriages, Volume 1, 1800-1835,from The Fairfield County Probate Court and The Fairfield County Recorder's Office, page 40
Family F1319
210 Falling Spring could also be called Guilford. It was Lancaster County in 1750, Cumberland County in 1750-1784, Franklin County in 1784.

On August 29, 1999, I visited Chambersburg and on the eastern outskirts drove along Falling Spring Road which runs somewhat adjacent to Falling Spring. According to 'Chambersburg in the Colony and the Revolution' by Lewis H. Garrard, Philadelphia, S.B. Lippincott and Co., 1856, "Falling Spring commenced at the confluence of several large springs and held its meandering way through natural meadows. Finally, the brook contracted for the impetutous leap from rock to rock and in foam and mist and rapid rill mingled with the waters of the Conococheague". I covered about eight miles of Falling Spring and indeed it did meander through a number of natural meadows that still remain to this day. I did see some remains of an old stone foundation and at another location an old stone building. There were no markers at either of these locations. Benjamin Chambers, the founder of Chambersburg build a log house about 1730 and later a saw mill and a grist mill. Benjamin Chambers married the daughter of Captain Robert Patterson of Lancaster in 1741. People at Falling Spring were almost excusively Scotch Irish Presbyterian. (Note to file by J.P. Rhein)

A review of Benjamin Gass' will dated, August 7, 1751 in the County of Cumberland in the Province of Pennsylvania shows that he left among other things, (1) two hundred acres of land lying upon the East Spring or East Branch of the Falling Spring to his son William Gass, his heirs and assigns and (2) 100 acres of land next to the mill adjoining to Thomas Beard's line to his youngest son, Benjamin Gass. (Note to file - JP Rhein)

Fulling - Fulling Mill

When handwoven wool cloth is made on a loom, the cloth is not very tight and the wool still contains too much grease and oils. The fulling process involves beating the cloth in a wooden tub with some water and soap. Fulling removes the oils and the beating forms a denser, more compact cloth. In a fulling mill a waterwheel powers a pair of wooden mallets to beat the cloth in the tub, often for days. This process shrinks the cloth to perhaps 1/2 its original size. The fulled cloth needs to be stretched and dried. This is done on a tentering frame. When the fulled cloth was dried, it is often further processed by having its nap raised and then cut smooth with heavy shears.

"Died leaving wife Eleanor with four minor children. Built the mill at Falling Springs and left it to his minor sons William and Benjamin Jr. These were the William and Benjamin whom Patrick Gass' granddaughter wrote about. She believed they came from Ireland. Since she didn't seem to know about their father, I believe she could have been wrong about the place of origin for the family." (Source - Mary H. Cole)

The origion of the Gass family is uncertain and will need to be investigated further. The following paragraphs list some possibilities

"When researching Ireland for others of my families, I kept my eyes open for Gass/Goss. There were none in my period of interest - before 1700. I found no family by that name on the hearth tax." (Source - Mary H. Cole)

"Benjamin Gass was probably of Huguenot extraction and was of a large party of expert fullers of linen taken to Ulster in 1665 by the Duke of Ormand from Brabant in the Netherlands to promote the linen manufacture in Ireland. Benjamin was a fuller of cloth and moving to Chambersburg, Cumberland County (now Franklin County) he operated a fulling mill for the manufacture of cloth on Falling Spring Creek. Benjamin died in the winter of 1751 and left four orphan children: Prudence, Mary, William and Benjamin Jr. His wife Elinor died about 1758. The four orphan children had for guardians, Benjamin Chambers and John Potter of Cumberland County (now Franklin County). William continued his father's fulling mill as late as 1783. Benjamin Gass' will is recorded in Book A, page 14, probated January 2, 1752." (Source - A Family of Millers and Stewarts, Dr. Robert F. Miller, 1909)

"A cousin, Robert Gass of South Africa, researched the family Gass and sold books on his results. I have one but Jeanette T. thought it was so much searching for royal ties. In any case, when I was in Africa for lectures at U. Cape Town and my daughter's wedding in Nambia, I visited the grandson of Robert Gass. He had recently traveled to the sites identified by his Grandfather and had pictures of the old farmstead, mill and other remnants. The next June, on my way to a meeting in Aberdeen, Scotland, I stopped for a week in the Scottish highlands and walked through the river valley and found their old farmstead and mill. It was just a small rock house with a rock drain into a cistern on a farm owned by an Oglethorpe. The long and short of the book is that the Gass group were Scottish Highlands land owners in the river valley of the Earn (Strathearn) east of Crief at first but lost their lands after three centuries, spent a century in southern Scotland and northern Ireland and now have spent three centuries on the North American continent. Of course there are still lots of Gasses along the way." (Source - Letter from Paul Smith, dated January 29, 1998 to his cousin, Sandra Smith Schakel, 96 Placitas Trails Rd, Placitas, NM 87043-9402, 
Gass, Benjamin (I0100)
211 Falling Spring, is the name by which the first settlement in the western part of Lancaster County was known for many years. As early as 1730 Benjamin and Joseph Chambers, two brothers visited a spot at the confluence of Falling Spring and Conococheague creeks. (Source - The History and Topography of Dauphin, Cumberland, Franklin, Bedford, Adams and Perry Counties, Pennsylvania, 1846 - page 39.)

When his father moved to Maryland, he left Patrick with his grand-uncle MacClane for three years to be educated, but Patrick claimed afterward to have "learned reading, writing and ciphering in 19 days'. The family returned from Maryland and Benjamin Gass, Jr. started west with his whole family and settled first at Beason's Town, Pennsylvania, now called Uniontown. In 1775 they moved to Catfish Camp, near what is now Washington, Pennsylvania. Patrick lived to be 99 years of age and died at his home near Independence, Washington County, Pennsylvania in 1870. In the fall of 1803 he volunteered for the expedition across the Rocky Mountains, under Captains Merriwether Lewis and George Clark. He with John Ordway and Nathaniel Pryor, were appointed sergeants. Lewis and Clark insisted that the sergeants keep diaries, in addition to those kept by the captains. Patrick's was made into a book and issued March 26, 1807, under the title "Lewis and Clark's Journal to the Rocky Mountains in the Years 1804-5-6, as Related by Patrick Gass, one of the Officers of the Expedition'. A second edition of this work appeared in 1847 from the Dayton, Ohio, Press.

When age 58, in 1829, Patrick Gass boarded with John Hamilton at Independence and married his daughter, Maria Hamilton, in 1830. They had seven children. She died of measles in 1846 on their farm.

In 1859 a "Life of and Times of Partick Gass" was issued at Wellsburg, Virginia (now West Virginia) by J. G. Jacob.

(Source - A Family of Millers and Stewarts, by Dr. Robert F. Miller, 1909)

"Beeson's Town, now Uniontown, was settled in 1767 and laid out (1776) by Henry Beeson, a Quaker. Its location on the old National Road was an important factor in its early development. It lies along Redstone Creek, among the rugged foothills of the Alleghenies, 45 miles southeast of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Fort Necessity National Battlefield, 11 miles southeast, is the site of the opening battle of the French and Indian Wars." (Source - Encyclopedia Britannica)

"The Lewis and Clark expedition is both one of the greatest adventures undertaken by Americans and one of the best documented at the time. The University of Nebraska Press edition of the Journals of Lewis and Clark now reaches 10 of the projected 13 volumes that will contain the complete record of the expedition.

In order that the fullest record possible be kept of the expedition, Captains Lewis and Clark required their sergeants to keep journals to compensate for possible loss of the captain's own accounts. The sergeants' accounts extend and corroborate the journals of Lewis and Clark and contribute to the full record of the expedition. Volume 10 contains the journal of expedition member Sergeant Patrick Gass.

Gass was promoted to sergeant on the expedition to fill the place of the deceased Charles Floyd. His journal was subsequently published and proved quite popular: it went through six editions in six years. A skilled carpenter, Gass was almost responsible for supervising the building of Forts Mandan and Catsop; his records of those forts are particularly detailed and useful. Gass was to live until 1870, the last survivor of the expedition and the one who lived to see transcontinental communication fulfill the promise of the expedition.

(Source - The Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, Volume 10, The Journal of Patrick Gass, May 14, 1804-September 23, 1806, University of Nebraska Press, Gary E. Moulton, Editor)

"... Captain Russell Bissell at Kaskaskia was ordered to provide Lewis with the best boat on the post and with a sergeant and "eight good men who understand rowing a boat". They would carry baggage for Lewis, to his winter quarters in Missouri, then descend before the ice closed in. Bissell refused Sergeant Patrick Gass's request to join the expedition, presumably on the grounds that he couldn't afford to lose his best non-commissioned officer. Lewis used the authority given him by Dearborn to enlist Gass anyway" (Source- Undaunted Courage by Stephen Ambrose)

A Guide With Attitude

"As the nation prepares to backtrack into the rich historical detail of the Lewis and Clark expedition, no guide is more sorely missed than Sacagawea, the teenage Indian interpreter whose role in helping negotiate the grand unknown of the West two centuries ago remains as mysterious and tantalizing as ever. Part of the problem is that while the explorers' journals offer all manner of description of the woodland life they encountered, the entries about Sacagawea focus on her indispensability more than her day-to-day individuality. Her face is on the gold dollar coin, on license plates, on product labels and more, but it's idealized, just like so many crucial details of her life. Legions of schoolchildren have yearned to know more but are offered conflicting information and myths. But among the theses worthy of the expedition's bicentennial commemoration over the next three years is that Sacagawea was this nation's first peace ambassador. The story is well known of her success in finding her native Shoshones - the tribe from which she was kidnapped as a child - and arranging the
crucial purchase of horses the expedition needed to cross the Rockies. No less vital, however, was her daily presence as the only woman in the 33-member expedition, one who packed her infant on her back throughout the rigorous trek. Tribes along the way that had to be wary of alien war parties and that had never seen non-Indian strangers respected the very sight of her. "A woman with a party of men is a token of peace," Captain Clark wrote appreciatively in his journal. More beguiling was Sacagawea's moment of rebellion upon approaching the Pacific when she was to be left behind and denied a once-in-a-lifetime sight of the great waters. She plainly spoke up. "The Indian woman was very importunate to be permitted to go, and was therefore indulged," wrote Captain Lewis, teasing posterity further about this peace ambassador with attitude." (Source- New York Times, January 4, 2003)

"At present, there's little more than a marker at a turnout from the road that runs along the broad Columbia River near a spot that was called Camp Station. It was here on November 24, 1805, that the Lewis and Clark Expedition - having reached the ocean and, as one member wrote, 'the end of our voyage' - voted on where to spend the winter before returning home. What made the vote significant: No one was excluded. It may have been the first time in American history that a black slave and a woman, notably an Indian woman, participated equally with white men in a recorded vote. 'At night, the party was consulted by the Commanding Officers, as to the place most proper for winter quarters,' wrote Sgt. Patrick Gass in his journal of the day. 'The whole party assembled', Pvt Joseph Whitehouse noted. In William Clark's journal, long columns record first and second choices. The last vote listed is that of York, Clark's servant. Like most of the others, York chose to make the difficult crossing of the Columbia into what is now Oregon, where Indians had said elk could be found. Sacagawea, the Shoshone woman who made the trip, also voted. Using her nickname, Clark wrote: 'Janey in favour of a place where there is plenty of Potas' - an edible root. The experiment in equality had no impact on entrenched discrimination. I would be 115 years before the 19th Amendment gave women the right to vote. Slaves were emancipated in 1863, but more than a century passed before the Voting Rights Act became law." (Source - The Associated Press, Sarasota-Herald Tribune, Sunday, January 12, 2002)

Gass, Patrick (I0219)
212 Family move to Centre County in 1789, where Regina died in 1799 leaving six children. The children were taken back to Womelsdorf, Berks County, Pennsylvania by relatives. Brua, Regina (I0066)
213 Farmer and Tax Assessor McCall, Paul Victor (I3645)
214 Fenwick with a population of 980 was originally part of Kilmarnock parish. It was separated from it in 1641 and granted its own market charter in 1707. The Fenwick people were resolute upholders of the Covenant in the 17th century. (Note to File - JP Rhein) Smith, Margaret (I4144)
215 Fifteenth Census of the United States, 1930, Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1930 Source (S02783)
216 Florida Death Index, 1877-1998
about Russell R Hartman
Name: Russell R Hartman
Death Date: 22 May 1983
County of Death: Manatee
State of Death: Florida
Age at Death: 87
Race: White
Birth Date: 28 Jan 1896

Hartman, Russell Roland (I4209)
217 For additional information on descendants of Susanna McKinney see Family Tree Maker, Tree # 2462, Volume 7, furnished by Helen Mogel (Mrs. John), RD 3, Box 63, New Bethlehem, PA 16242. McKinney, Susanna (I0056)
218 For details on ancestors of Zelma Arrie McGinnis see Family Tree Maker, Volume 13, Tree Number 2805. McGinnis, Zelma Arrie (I0440)
219 France
August 26, 1918

My Dear Brothers,

I hope you are as well and happy as I am. Things here are fine. Will have many interesting stories to tell you when I see you again. I hope it will not be too long a while. I hope work and study is agreeing with you two and that you may do your best until I come back. The weather here is very nice and the place where I am at is one of the most beautiful I have ever seen.
Wishing you the best of success. I am with love.
Your brother,
Joseph P. Rhein
Ord. Sgt.

From August 22 to August 30 the 320th Infantry Regiment was in the Department of Cote D'Or in the area of Aignay-le-Due and the towns of Beaunotte, St. Marc and Duesme where a stay of nearly a week was made. (Source - History of 320th Infantry Regiment, 80th Division)

320th Infantry Regiment of the 80th Division
France 1918

ST. MIHIEL OFFENSIVE, September 12 - September 16, 1918

At seven P. M., on the night of September 12, General Pershing, then commanding the First American Army, authorized the attachment of one
Regiment of the Eightieth Division to the Second Colonial Corps as an assisting force to the Second Cavalry Division in pushing the enemy on the western face of the St. Mihiet salient. This authorization was telephoned to the Commanding General of the Eightieth Division who ordered the 320th Infantry to be prepared to move that evening. By ten¬thirty the Regiment was assembled in the streets of Nan~ois-Ie-Petit in readiness to embuss. The truck column, consisting of one hundred thirty¬two trucks, proceeded via Silmont, Gery, Rumont, Pierrefitte, Thillombois to Woimbey on the River Meuse and in the Department of the same name, where it arrived at seven A. M. After a short period of rest, the Regiment began the march to a designated position in the salient. Its mission was to follow the French Cavalry (dismounted) in the latter's pursuit of the enemy as far as the high ground between Lavigneville and Chaillon and there to entrench. The march of about sixteen kilometers over bad roads cluttered by French transports was accomplished by late afternoon. The towns along the line of march, Seuzey, Dompierre and Deuxnouds, in every way, showed signs of the recent German occupation. At the latter place, ruins of their military quarters, until that time undisturbed since the early days of the war, were still smouldering; and buildings which the Germans were not able to destroy in their haste of departure, were found to contain almost every item of comfort that a four year's occupancy could provide.

Shortly after the Regiment had taken position, an order was received from the French Brigade Commander directing the troops to be at the morning's debussing station by nine o'clock the following morning. The enemy's retreat had been so rapid that he was ten kilometers out of reach at the time of the Regiment's arrival and the presence of infantry in that section was no longer necessary. Reveille sounded at one-thirty A. M., and the return march made via Lavigneville, Lamorville, Lacroix-sur¬Meuse to the trucks at Woimbey. This experience in the salient, though unaccompanied by any actual fighting, was one of the most fatiguing and long to be remembered of the entire war.

The night of the fourteenth was staged at Neuville-en Verdunois. An embussing took place on the evening of the fifteenth with. a destination in the woods three kilometers west of Sou illy. After three days in bivouac the Regiment marched north to the Bois la Ville, ten kilometers southwest of Verdun. Here it remained four days and then moved north to Bois Bourrus.

By this time it had become known that the First American Army would soon attack on the sector between the Meuse River (above Verdun) and the Argonne Forest, and that the Eightieth Division was moving to its place in line. The Bois Bourrus proved to be the last resting point before taking a position in readiness to go "over the top".

Every movement in the forward areas took place with the greatest secrecy. All marching or transportation by truck was done at night; troops and transport were required to be under cover of woods before daybreak; no fires or lights were permitted at night and activity during the daytime was restricted to a minimum. The results of these precautions were edvidenced in the statements of prisoners captured during the first day of the drive, who told examiners that the attack was not expected and came as a total suprise.

BETHINCOURT, MEUSE-ARGONNE OFFENSIVE, September 26 - October 4, 1918

On the night of September 25th, after a brief but severe period of shelling by the enemy, the Regiment left the Bois Bourrus to take position for the long awaited attack. The jumping-off point was just south of the town of Bethincourt, at the foot of the high ground known as Dead Man's Hill (Le Mort Homme) that served as an outer defense of Verdun and which became so famous in connection with the siege of that city.

The artillery preparation commencing several hours before the infantry attack, was as tremendous, probably, as any that had ever supported an attacking army. The prestige of the First American Army was in the making and its initial attempt simply could not fail.

At five-thirty A. M., the Second Battalion, following closely the rolling barrage, began the attack on a one kilometer (% mile) front. The advance was at the rate of one kilometer in forty minutes and within the first few hours of morning, the crust of the enemy's defensive system had been pierced and his second position reached. At four P. M., the Corps Objective in the Bois de Septsarges was reached and outguards established for the night. The early morning hours of that first day presented problems belonging purely to a stationary or trench warfare style of fighting. The Germans were holding a line of trenches they had never left since taking that position in the early days of the war. They had been given an oppor¬tunity of four years' duration to make it as secure as their ingenuity permitted. After these few hours, the type of warfare became open, or semi-open, and continued to be such until hostilities ceased with the armistice.

The attack was continued at six-thirty A. M., the following morning but the advance was less rapid by reason of increasing resistance of the enemy. The ground was hilly, with alternating valleys and ridges and, for the most part, wooded. This gave every advantage to the defense and the enemy was able effectively to mask his many machine gun nests on which he was mainly relying for holding up the attack. On September 28th, the Regiment reached the Army Objective-the River Meuse where it runs almost due east from Brieulles-and the first phase of the big attack was over. That night the Regiment was relieved by troops of the
Thirty-Third Division, after having captured numerous prisoners, two score of machine guns, several pieces of artillery arid made an advance of ten kilometers direct into enemy territory.

If a line be drawn on the map from Bethincourt to the town of Brieulles¬sur-Meuse, it will represent roughly the axis of direction taken by the Regiment in the Bethincourt Phase of the Meuse-Argonne Offensive. Upon relief, the Regiment was placed in tactical reserve and kept in bivouac in an old German system of trenches just south of the village of Cuisy. Here a much needed rest was obtained under circumstances that, to any but the survivors of a "push," might have been considered well nigh impossible.


On the night of October 7th, the Regiment, with the First Battalion in front, took over the right half of a new Divisional Sector north of Montfaucon, and at three-thirty on the afternoon of October 9th, started to attack in the Bois des Ogons under cover of a creeping barrage.
Heavy machine gun resistance was encountered, but by morning the battalion had advanced two kilometers through difficult woods and reached the road running from Cunel to Brieulles. Concentrations of machine gun fire from all directions and of artillery fire, especially from batteries across the river, caused the battalion to entrench and to employ flanking and infiltrating tactics.
The attack was continued the following morning in the wake of a rolling barrage, but nothing in the way of artillery preparation seemed to interfere with the effectiveness of the German machine gun. It's fire from all angles was terrific and, though two companies were able to reach a small trench system some three hundred yards in advance of the road, they were later withdrawn under cover of the woods to avoid useless exposure.
On the morning of October 11th, the attempt was made again, and this time an advance of another kilometer was made and maintained in the face of a most determined resistance. That night, after fifty-five hours of almost constant fighting in an area drenched with gas and shelled by high explosives, the Regiment was relieved by troops of the Fifth Division and routed via Montfaucon and Avocourt to a bivouac area in the Foret De Hesse. A line drawn from Montfaucon north through Nantillois to Ancreville represents the general direction taken by the 320th Infantry in what may be designated, from the Regimental standpoint, as the Nantillois Phase of the Meuse-Argonne Offensive.
After several rainy days in the woods, the troops embussed and were taken to billets in an area just south of the Argonne Forest. Here, with Regimental Headquarters, Headquarters Company and Machine Gun and the Third at Passavant, the men obtained baths, various items of new clothing, rest, and, what seemed the most to be desired, freedom from the ominous hum and burst of shells. The change was not for long, however, and on October 27th, the Regiment marched to the western approach of Triaucourt and there embussed in French camions for the Neuvilly area. The debussing took place at le Neufour, in the Argonne Forest, followed by a five kilometer march to bivouac in the. woods at la Chalade.

ST. JUVIN-ST. GEORGES, MEUSE-ARGONNE OFFENSIVE, November 1, - November 6, 1918

The Regiment remained there under ideal weather conditions until the night of October 30th, when it marched via le Four de Paris, la Barricade, Chatel Chehery, Fleville to support position southeast of St. Juvin in the Department of Ardennes. On the night of October 31st, the Eightieth Division relieved the Eighty-Second, and the Third Battalion formed along the St. Juvin-St. Georges Road in preparation for an attack at dawn.
The barrage which opened at three-thirty a. M., was immediately followed by a destructive enemy counter-barrage placed along the St. Juvin-St. Georges Road. The battalion jumped off at five-forty-two a. M., meeting intense machine gun fire from the very start. The German position on the far side of a ravine (aux Pierres), with an unbroken field of fire, seemed impregnable. The fighting was of the most desperate order during the morning but the enemy's resistance was slowly but surely broken down. Further artillery support was given that night and, upon continuing the attack at five-fifteen a. M., November 2nd, the Regiment made steady progress until relieved that morning. This day of November 1st marked the last of heavy fighting for the Division and, in fact, for substantially the entire First American Army. When that day was over, the march to the Rhine had actually begun. The Infantry, thereafter, could not keep pace with the retreating enemy and his rearguard action was but feebly maintained during the following days that proved to be the last of the war.
The Regiment, after relief, continued the march forward through Imecourt, Sivry, Buzancy, to a bivouac area in a woods twenty-five kilometers due south of historic Sedan.
On November 8th, it began a march southward which developed into a two hundred kilometer tramp through a half dozen Departments to a southern training area. The line of march went through Marcq, Bois d'Apremont (Department of Ardennes), les Islettes (Meuse), Verrieres, Givry-en Argonne (Marne), Revigny, Baudonvilliers (Meuse), Villiersaux Bois, Dommartin, St. Pierre (Haute-Marne), Fontette, les Riceys (Aube) to a training area in the Department of Cote D'Or. (Source - 320th Infantry Regiment, 80th Division, McGraw-Phillips Printing Company, Inc., New York City.)

During the few months that the 320th Infantry Regiment fought in France in the late summer and fall of 1918 they suffered the following killed in action or died of wounds.

Field Officers 1
Headquarters Company 5
Machine Gun Company 6
Medical Detachment 5
Company A28
Company B19
Company C36
Company D19
Company E16
Company F11
Company G12
Company H23
Company I25
Company K20
Company L38
Company M16


GENERAL ORDERFRANCE, Ilth November, 1918.

No. 19


The 80th Division only moves FORWARD.

It not only moves forward against the Enemy, but it moves forward in the estimation of all who are capable of judging its courage, its fighting and its many qualities.

In the operations for the period November Ist-5th, the Division moved forward fifteen and five eighths miles in an air line.

It always led.

It captured two Huns for every man wounded.

It captured one machine gun for every man wounded.

It captured one cannon for every ten men wounded, besides large quantities of munitions and other stores.

It accomplished these results, of vast importance to the success of the general operation, with a far smaller percentage of casualties than any other Division engaged.

It has learned by hard training and experience.

The appreciation of the Corps and Army Commanders is expressed in the following:

Telegram from the Commanding General, First Army:

"The Army Commander desires that you inform the Commander of the 80th Division of the Army Commander's appreciation of his excellent work during the battle of today. He desires that you have this information sent to all organizations of that Division as far as may be practicable this night. He fully realizes the striking blow your Division has delivered to the enemy this date."

Telegram from the Commanding General, First Army Corps:

"The Corps Commander is particularly pleased with the persistent, intelligent work accomplished by your Division today. He is further desirous that his congratulations and appreciation reach General LLOYD M. BRETT, commanding your Brigade, which has bome the brunt of the burden."

Letter from the Commanding General, First 4rmy Corps:

"The Corps Commander desires that you be informed, and that those under your command be informed, that in addition to other well deserved commendations received from the Army Commander and the Corps Commander, he wishes to express his particular gratification and appreciation of the work of your Division from the time it has entered under his command."

It is necessarily a great honor to be allowed to command an organization which earns such commendation.

It is likewise a great honor to belong to such an organization.

1 do not know what the future has in store for us. If it be war, we must and shall sustain our honor and our reputation by giving our best to complete the salvation of our Country.

If it be peace, we must and shall maintain our reputation and the honor of our Division and the Army, as soldiers of the greatest country on earth, and as right-minded, self respecting men.

The 80th Division only moves FORWARD.

A. CRONKHITE, Major General.

(Source - 320th Infantry Regiment, 80th Division, McGraw Phillips Printing Company, Inc., New York City)

The World War I Meuse-Argonne American Cenetery and Memorial is located east of the village of Romagne-sons-Montfaucon (Meuse), France and about twenty-six miles northwest of Verdun. Meuse-Argonne, covering one hundred and thirty acres, holds the largest number of American Dead in Europe, a total of 14,246. Most of those buried here gave their lives during the Meuse Argonne Offensive in World War I. The immense array of headstones rises in rectangular rows upwards beyond a wide central pool to the chapel which crowns a ridge. A beautiful bronze screen separates the chapel foyer from the rows upward beyond a wide central pool to the chapel which crowns a ridge.

American Expeditionary Forces
80th Division

Nickname - "Blue Ridge" Division.


National Army Division established by the War Department on 5 Aug 17 to be
established at Camp Lee, VA. Draftees were from Pennsylvania, Virginia and West
Virginia. Movement overseas commenced on 17 May 18 and was completed by 9 Jun

Primary Units
159th Infantry Brigade:
317th Infantry Regiment
318th Infantry Regiment
313th Machine Gun Battalion

160th Infantry Brigade:
319th Infantry Regiment
320th Infantry Regiment
315th Machine Gun Battalion

155th Field Artillery Brigade:
313th Field Artillery Regiment (75mm)
314th Field Artillery Regiment (75mm)
315th Field Artillery Regiment (155mm)
305th Trench Mortar Battery

Divisional Troops:
314th Machine Gun Battalion
305th Engineer Regiment
305th Field Signal Battalion
305th Train Headquarters and MP
305th Ammunition Train
305th Supply Train
305th Engineer Train
305th Sanitary Train (Ambulance Companies & Field Hospitals 317, 318, 319, 320)

Campaign Participation

Campaign Streamers (most units):
Somme Offensive
155th Field Artillery Brigade & 305th Ammunition Train: Meuse-Argonne only
U. S. Victory Medal Clasps:
Defensive Sector

"The commander of the American Expeditionary Force, General John I. Pershing, fixed the Army division at 979 officers, 27,082 men (about 40,000 all told), including support personnel. Pershing created this division - which was more than twice the size of its European counterpart - to acheive a capacity for sustained battle which would ensure that American divisions would not falter short of their objectives as British and French divisions so often had done. A division with fewer but larger regiments would facilitate a more reasonable span of control and battle momentum. Similar to - albeit larger than - early European "square designs, the American square division consisted of two infantry brigades of two regiments each, one field artillery brigade (two 75-mm regiments, one 155-mm regiment) an engineer regiment, a machine gun battalion, a signal battalion, and division supply, and sanitary trains. Each regiment had the strength of 112 officers and 3,720 men formed into three battalions and one machine gun company. Each battalion consisted of four companies of six officers and 250 men each." (Source - The U.S. Army in the Twentieth Century)

Rhein, Joseph Peter (I0090)
220 Frederick Hilliard was by occupation a carpenter and contractor, and while yet a comparatively young man was killed by a fall during the construction of a building. There is very little recorded of his life, nor is it known whom he married or how numerous was his family; all of the information available touches his son who inherited his name and continued residence in Clarion County. Hilliard, Frederick (I3240)
221 Frederick K. McKinney, 86, of 446 Colerain St., Sligo, died following a sudden illness at 3:30 p.m. Tuesday, Sept. 10, 2002, in Country Springs Assisted Living near Sligo, where he had resided for the past three and a half months. Born May 22, 1916, in Sligo, he was the son of Fred R. and Kathern McKinney. In his younger years, Mr. McKinney worked in the coal mines at the former Slope Mine in Huey and then worked for Logue Memorials and Bracken Construction Co., both of Sligo. Mr. McKinney had attended the Sligo United Methodist Church in the past. He was a member of the IOOF in Sligo and was a longtime member of the Sligo Sportsmen's Club. He was married Aug. 28, 1937, to Edna B. McKinney, who died Oct. 21, 1989. Surviving are three daughters, Mrs. Darrell (Janet) Smith of Clarion, Mrs. William (Sandra) Rodgers of Chicora and Mrs. Thomas (Pat) Mong of Rimersburg; two sons, David McKinney and wife, Michele, of Parker and Dennis McKinney of Sligo; 11 grandchildren; and 15 great-grandchildren. In addition to his parents and wife, Mr. McKinney was preceded in death by two sisters, Ruby Siehl and Mary Whitten; and one brother, Ralph McKinney. The family will receive friends from 2 to 4 and 7 to 9 p.m. today at the Varner Funeral Home in Sligo. Funeral services will be held at 11 a.m. Friday in the funeral home with the Rev. Rick Russell, pastor of the Sligo United Methodist Church, officiating. Interment will follow in Grandview Cemetery, Sligo. The family suggests memorial donations be made to the American Heart Association or to the Sligo United Methodist Church, Sligo, 16255.
McKinney, Frederick Keith (I2264)
222 From "Leader Vindicator" article of Jan 4, 1995 - "Breezepoint Farm Earns Century Farm Certificate"
Purchased "Breezepoint Farm" in R D 1, Rimersburg, Pa. in 1886 from the Jeremiah Hepler estate on April 22,1886. Deed recorded at courthouse three months later.
"Seth, a native of West Freedom, moved to the area after purchasing the farm and married Elsie Polliard. A log home sat on the farm, but the new owners constructed a new house in 1894 which became the original homestead. The couple had 12 children, including Clyde Gayle Stewart, Diana's grandfather.
Another 50 acres were added to the arm in 1894 upon the death of Elsie Stewart's father, William Polliard. In 1899, her husband purchased tracts of 64 and six acres to complete the Stewart farm, a property which covered nearly 200 acres.
When Seth Stewart died, the farm was transferred to Diana's grandparents, Clyde Dale and Esther E. Stewart,in 1943. they continued to farm the land with help from their eight children.

In 1959, one of the children, Kenneth, and his wife Dolores, took over the dairy farm operation and purchased all but six acres of the farm, which Diana's grandparents kept. Ken had grown up on the farm after moving back from New Kensington at the age of 4 with his father in 1927.
The Stewarts continued to farm until about 1967, with Ken holding down a full time job as a grader operator for Bracken Construction Co. in addition to working on the farm. 'He'd get up at two o'clock in the morning to milk the cows and then drive as far as Mercer or New Wilmington,' Dolores remembers. 'And then he'd come back and do the same thing in the evening.' Finally, the schedule became too much, and the couple decided to sell all of their cattle and most of the farm
equipment. Nearly half of the farm was returned to Dianna's grandparents, who in turn began renting it to a neighboring farmer who owned adjoining land. A few smaller parcels were sold outside the family, but others were reserved for Ken's brother, James, and his daughters, Nancy and Diana. Another of Ken's brothers, Richard,
also owns a piece of the original farm he acquired from his parents.
In 1987, a new generation was handed the torch, as Tim and Diana Kunselman purchased the farm buildings and over 87 acres which, combined with the property she already owned, created the 90 acre Breezepoint Farm. Ken and Dolores kept the family home and continue to live there."

Obit from The Leader Vindicator (date unknown): Seth C. Stewart, a resident of Rimersburg, died Tuesday evening, May 12, 1942, at his home. Death followed an illness of several years. Mr. Stewart was born in Perry township, Clarion county, in 1861. Later he became a resident of Porter township. In 1882 he was married to Miss Elsie E. Polliard, who died in 1921. He later married Mrs. Cora Hawk, who survives. He leaves his wife, and the following sons and daughters: W. D. Stewart, Rimersburg; Carl Stewart, Warren; Gale Stewart, Porter township; James Stewart, Zelienople; Mrs. Arnold Rudiger, New Kensington; Mrs. Byron McDonald, Butler; and Mrs. Earl McDonald, R. D., New Bethlehem. Also surviving are three step-children, Mrs. Thos. Hamm, Curllsville; Edgar Hawk, Madison township, and Burton Hawk, Pine township; thirty-eight grandchildren, and one great grandchild, and the following brothers and sisters: T.M. Stewart, Rimersburg, R.D.; John O. Stewart, West Freedom; Mrs. Geo. Reichart, Parker, Mrs. Louis Fuller of Midway, and Mrs. Emma Young, of West Freedom. Mr. Stewart was a member of the St. Luke's Reformed church of Rimersburg. Funeral services were held Friday afternoon at 2:00 o'clock at his late residence with the family pastor, the Reverend R. L. Frazier, officiation, assisted by the Reverend M. P. Steele. Burial was made in the family plot in the Squirrel Hill cemetery.

(Above obitfurnished by Linda Walls) 
Stewart, Seth Charles (I1172)
223 From 1850 Census pg 125

George Polliard, 42 M farmer, value $1000
Mary 35 F
Henry 18 M
Mary A. 17 F
Uriah 15 M
William 13 M
Caroline 11 F
Thomas 8 M
Charles 3 M
Milton 6 mos.

From "Polliard Family History" from Barbara Oswald, Butler, Pa.

"George Polliard (Balliet) was born in 1810 in Luzerne County, Pa. He and his family moved to Red Bank Twp., Armstrong County, Pa. He married Mary Mays and lived in Porter Twp. and moved to Mays Twp. in 1835 near Rockville, Pa. He was a farmer. He had three sons and two daughters. George Polliard's brother, Nicholas Balliet was born in 1813 in Luzerne County, Pa. He and his wife Catherine moved to Limestone Twp., Clarion County, near the Frogtown Salem Church. He had a son, David M. Balliet, born in 1845, who moved to Waterloo, Iowa.

George Polliard's son Henry (1832-1882) married Caroline Weaver (1840-1907). She ran an orphanage near New Bethlehem, Clarion County, Pa. their children were: M. Jane, Elizabeth, Nannie, Thomas E., Albert, Frank, Charles, Benton, Alfred G., Sarah E., Alverda.

Charles Leslie Polliard, born March 22, 1870, married Anna Shanafelt. He died September 8, 1927, she died March 20, 1960."

Deed from Armstrong Co., Pa. Book 2 at Clarion County Courthouse (Clarion County was originally part of Armstrong County)

"Peter Fidler
George Polliard

"This indenture made the twenty-sixth of December in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-five between Peter Fidler of Redbank township, Armstrong Co. and state of Pennsylvania and Nancy his wife of the first part and George Pollard of the township, county and state aforesaid of the other part. Witnesseth that the said Peter Fidler and Nancy his wife for one and in consideration of the sum of forty five dollars lawful money of the United States to them in and paid by the said George Pollard of the second part at before the enseuling (ensuing) or delivery thereof the receipt whereof is hereby
We are grantes bargained, evlo, aliened, efeoffed, released and confirmed and by these presents do grant, bargain, sell, alien, enfeoff, release and confirm unto the said George Polliard and to his heirs and assigns all that part here after described of a certain tract of land which was surveyed to Peter Fidler in pursuance of a Warrant Numbered 5889 dated the 2 day of Nov. 1804 to which a patent was granted unto the said Peter Fidler bearing date of the 27th day of August 1835. Enrolled in Patent Book ? Vol 33 page 450. Situated in Redbank township, Armstrong County and State aforesaid of which the present division is a part and bounded and describes as following: Beginning at a stone-thence by land of John Mohney, south one hundred sixty nine & 1/2 perches to a post thence by land of Peter Fidler, West forty four 3/4 perches to a post thence by land to John Polliard North one hundred, sixty-nine 1/2 perches to a white oak thence by land of William Clark eighty four 3/4 perches the place of Beginning-containing one hundred and ten acres and 4/10 with the allowance, Together with the buildings, improvements, woods, ways, water-courses, sights,liberties, privileges, hereditaments and appuclenances what so ever there unto belonging or in anywise appertaining and their reversions and remainders, rents, and profits thereof and also all the estate, right, title, interest, property, claim and demands what so ever of them the said Peter Fidler and Nancy his wife in law or equity or otherwise howsoever of, in and to the same to have and to hold the said described tract of one hundred and ten acres and 4/10 of land with the allowance hereby granted with the appurtenances unto the said George Pollard his heirs and assigns against him the said Peter Fidler and his heirs and against all and every other person or persons whomsoever lawful claiming or to claim the same under him them or any of them - Shall and Warrant and forever defend by these preset - In Witness whereof the said Peter Fidler and Nancy his wife have hereunto set their hands and seals this day and year first above written Signed seal & Delivered in Presence of I.B.McComb & James Henry.

Peter Fidler (seal)
Nancy Fidler (seal)

Received on the day of the date of the above Indenture of and from the above named George Pollard the sum of forty five dollars lawful money of the United States being the consideration money above mentioned in full.
Peter Fidler

Armstrong County S.S.
Before me the subscriber a Justice of the Peace in and for said County. - Personally came the aboved named Peter Fidler and Nancy his wife and acknowledges the above indenture to be their act and deed and desires the same might be recorded as such - She the said Nancy being of lawful age and being examined separated and apart from her said husband, and the contents of the said indentures being first made fully known to her declares that she did of her own free will and accord sign, seal and as her act and deed, deliver the same without any coercion or compulsion of her said husband - Witness the hand and seal of said Justice the 26th day of December in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty -five.
Wm Henry (seal)
Recorded in Armstrong Co 20'June 1836 Book No 9 page 361

From George Polliard's will, found in Clarion Co. Courthouse, Clarion, Pa. Will A298, Docket A287, witnessed October 3, 1860 and recorded November 9, 1860.

"Know all men by these present, that I, George Polliard of Porter Township, Clarion County and State of Pennsylvania being sick and . . . in body, but of sound mind, memory and understanding, do make and publish this my last will and testament, revoking all former wills by me at any time heretofore made. and as to my worldly estate and all the property real, personal or mixed of which I shall die . . . and possess or to which I shall be entitled at the time of my decease, I devise bequeath and dispose of in manner following to wit.

First: I give, devise and bequeath all my personal estate wheresoever and whatsoever to my two sons (jointly) Henry Polliard and Thomas Polliard to have and to hold the same to them their heirs . . . and assigns forever.

Second: I also give devise and bequeath to them, my two sons Henry Polliard and Thomas Polliard (jointly) my dwelling house, my land and its appurtenance situated in Porter Township, Clarion County and State of Pennsylvania adjoining lands of James Henry (Nutter) on the North, Henry M Moll (sp?) on the East, George Wood (sp?) and heirs of Jacob Asbaugh (sp?) on the South and William Blair on the West containing one hundred and sixteen acres of land neat measure to have to hold the same to them the said Henry Polliard and Thomas Polliard their heirs, executors, administrators and assigns and to their use and behest of forever.

And as consideration in part for the before mentioned bequests, Order and direct that they the said Henry Polliard and Thomas Polliard shall pay all my just debts and funeral expenses as soon after my decease as conveniently may be, and shall maintain and provide for my beloved wife Nancy during her natural life if she so long remains unmarried, but should she marry another husband, then from that period . . . said Henry Polliard and Thomas Polliard shall be exempt from maintaining or provided for her, and they shall further also maintain, provide for and educate my minor children named Charles Newton Polliard, Eveline Sophia Polliard and John Calvin Polliard during their minority and pay to the rest of my children as follows to wit. In Six years from the date of my decease, to my son Uriah Polliard the sum of one hundred dollars, and in one year thereafter or seven years from the date of my decease to my son William Polliard the sum of one hundred dollars and one year thereafter or in eight years from the date of my decease to my daughter Mary Ann intermarried with John Slaugenhaupt the sum of seventy five dollars and one year thereafter or in ten years from the date of my decease to my son Charles Newton Polliard the sum of one hundred dollars and they shall further pay one hundred dollars to each of my two remaining minor children (namely Evalin Sophia Polliard and John Calvin Polliard) at such time as they severally shall arrive at the age of twenty one years. And lastly I nominate, constitute and appoint my esteemed George T. Henry executor of this my last Will and Testament."

Witnessed by Aaron Kline and Thomas J. Henry
Personally appeared before John Haslet, Register of the probate of Wills 
Polliard, George Balliet (I3735)
224 From headstone in Reformed Church, Neffs, Pa.

"In memory of Paul Balliet who died March 19, 1777 age 60 years. Born 1717. First of the Balliets who came to Whitehall in 1738. Born Alsace in Europe."

From "The Balliet, Balliett, Balliette, Balyeat, Bolyard, and Allied Families, 1968

pg 49

"Paulus Balliet, the pioneer founder of the family in America settled in what is now Whitehall Township, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania. He located on a tract of 97 acres, 100 perched on what became known as the "Old Balliet Stand" about eight miles north of Allentown where the village of Ballietsville is now located. From 1749 to 1774 he purchased land contiguous to the first tract, amounting in all to 713-100/160 acres, for which he paid the sum of L526 12s 8d.

An example of the liberty taken by others of the spelling of the family name can be found in the copy of the deed of this first land purchased by PAULUS, wherein he is listed as Paul Polyard:

'THOMAS PENN and RICHARD PENN Esqrs. True and absolute Properties and Governors in Chief of the Province of Pennsylvania, and Counties of New Castle, Kent and Sussex upon Delaware.'

'To all unto whom thee Presents shall come, Greeting: Whereas in Conseuence of the Application of Paul Polyard, dated the Twelfth Day of April 1749, for 97-100/160 Acres of Land in Whitehall Township, Northampton County, a Survey hath been made of the Tract of Land hereinafter mentioned and intended to be hereby granted. AND WHEREAS, in Pursuance of a Warrant dated the Ninth Day of October 1759, . . . . thereby certifying the Description, Bounds and Limits, of the Land as aforesaid, surveyed to be as follows, vix: Beginning at a small marked Chestnut Oak, thence by vacant land North thrity-five degrees, West one hundred and forty perches to a post, South seventy degrees, West eighty perches to a post, and south one hundred and forty-four perches and a half to a post, thence by land of Caspar Wistar, North seventy degrees, East one hundred and sixty-five perches to the place of beginning, containing Ninty seen Acres and One hundred Perches, and the usual allowace of Six Acres, per cent for Roads and Highways."

pg. 53

"Palatines imported in the Ship Robert and Alice of Dublin, Walter Goodman, Master, from Rotterdam, but last from Dover in England. Qualified the 11th Day of September 1738.

At the Courthouse of Philadelphia, September 11, 1738. Present The Honourable George Thomas, Esq., Lietenant Governor . . etc. the Palatines whose names are underwritten, imported in the ship Robert and Alice of Dublin, Walter Goodman, Cmr., from Rotterdam, but last from Dover in England, did this day take and subscrive the Oaths to the Government.

In these documents PAUlUS is listed as; Paulus Buliut, Baullus Balliett and Baullus Balliet."

From "History of Northampton, Lehigh, Monroe, Carbon & Schuylkill Counties" by Daniel Rupp

pg 21

"March 11, 1752 Northampton County erected from upper Bucks. A petition for a township: Names
Paul Pollyard (Balliot)

From "Wills of Northampton County 1752-1850"
on file at Courthouse in Easton, Pa. Will #758 Wb1-180-1777  
Balliet, Paulus (I4338)

"Nicholas Baliett, now called Polliard, with his family settled in 1801, on a farm now owned by Reuben Shiry, his grandson."


pg 10

"On Leatherwood Creek, in 1802 settled Robert Travis, John, William and Robert Beatty, Christian Smathers, Nicholas Polliard, Michael Harriger and the Delp family in 1804-5."

From page 283 in Armstrong Co. Book II
(in Clarion County Courthouse recorded in Armstrong Co. Book II) recorded 17 December 1838 pg 225

"Nicholas Polyard and Elizabeth, his wife, of Monroe Township, Armstrong County and State of Pennsylvania of the one part and William Coder of Delaware Township, County and State of aforsaid of the other part. Witnesseth that the same Nicholas . . . Elizabeth, his wife for and inconsideration here in after stated do grant, bargin and sell and confer unto the . . .by those present do release and forever confirm from them and their heirs in addyation unto the William Coder his heirs and assigned All the following described and bounded plantation piece or parasel . . . "Nicholas Shirey on the East, John Sayers on the South, Michael Harriger on the West, Joseph Galbrath on the North. Containing one hundred and twenty acres more or less. . . He (William Coder) is to come and live on the land, put up his own buildings and farm the tract of land for the term of 10 years. From next spring, he is to put in at least 10 acres of wheat, 10 acres of rye each year and spring crops to suit himself, and give 1/2 of all grain and hay and put up for said term of 10 years unto said Nicholas Polliard who reserves to himself all buildings that are now up, and garden; and pasture for 1 horse as long as he keeps one, and 2 cows pasture, and not to exceed 15 sheep, also said Coder to do all his milling and to provide all his firewood, cut and ready at the door for burning as long as he lives, and at the expire of 10 years said Wm. coder gives to said Nicholas Polliard and Elizabeth his wife as long as they live, 15 bu. of wheat, 10 bu. of rye, 3 bu. of buckwheat, and sufficiency of potatoes, 300 lb. pork, 1 bu. flaxseed yearly - to be sown during the 10 years and after that if any of them shall be living 1/2 bu. yearly as long as they live."

"After the 10 years is expired, the said Wm. Coder is to find the said Nicholas and Elizabeth in sufficiently of clothing and leather. Last to pay the Dr. bill if any should be and take care of them, if either of them be sick, and to procure for them the necessary comforts of life, and all the funeral expenses, on condition of keeping them while they live he gets the plantation they now live on."

signed and sealed Nicholas Poyard & Elizabeth Polyard
witnessed by Sam & Nancy Orr

From 1830 Census

pg 228

Nicholas Balliett, Clarion Twp., Armstrong Co., age 50 - 60
members of household included:
1 male between ages of 10-15
1 " " " " 15-20
1 " " " " 20-30
1 female between ages of 0 -5
2 " " " " 5-10
2 " " " " 10-15
1 " " " " 15-20
1 " " " " 20-30
1 " " " " 30-40

There is also listed a Stephen Polyard, Clarion Twp., Armstrong Co., as a head of household with
1 male age 20-30. Is this Nicholas's son Stephen?
1 female " 20-30
1 female under 5

Florence Ruth Polliard visited Barbara Polliard Oswald, 232 E. McQuiston Rd, Butler, Pa. 16001 (Now deceased). "She had visited Ballietsville, Pa. and Neff, Pa. all near Allentown, Pa. about 1987. This is where the Ballietts had settled. She found records in Union Church. A lady she talked to said that Nicholas Balliett didn't get along with his father, John Nicholas Balliett. They lost track of him but he showed up as our ancestor in Clarion, Co. due to the Polyard name in older records, like the Paulus deed from Richard and Thomas Penn to Paul Polyard 12th April 1749 for 97-100/160 acres of land in Whitehall Twp., Northampton Co. He was called Nicholas Balliett "now called Polliard" (Polyard, Pollyard) in Clarion Co."

"John Nicholas Balliet had a large family including three different wives. Children were: Jacob, Elizabeth (died at age 13 June 11, 1811, buried in St. Johns cemetery), Stephen, Margaret (who moved to Clarion County). Children of second wife were GEORGE POLLIARD (Balliet), Stephen, Susan, Nicholas and David. "

"Nicholas Balliet, now called Nicholas Polliard died on December 31, 1851 and is buried in lot 27 Churchville Cemetery, Clarion County, Pa."

His will was probated on November 5, 1855, Docket A193. Name of "Administrator, Executor or Guardian" was Robert Henry.

The name change from Balliet to Polliard could have had a transition stage of being spelled Pollyard. The deed recorded on page 283 in Armstrong Co. Book 2 Clarion Courthouse lists a Nicholas Polliard and wife of Monroe Township deeded to WM. Coder, Clarion Township, Armstrong Co. . . . . but is signed Nicholas Polyard and Elizabeth Polyard

1850 Census Clarion County, Pa.
pg. 40
On August 8, 1850 there was a Nicholas Pollyard, age 39 living in Limestone Township, Clarion Co, Pa.
Leah " 21 female
Ann " 12 "
R. A. " 11 "
C. L. " 8 "
D. M. " 6 male
A. M. " 2 male
S. A. " 3 mos. female

1850 Census Toby Township, Clarion County, Pa.
There is also a Stephen Pollyard, age 46
Rachael " 46
Juliann " 17 F
Benjamin " 14 M
Ames " 11 M
Sarah " 10 F
Allonzo " 6 M
George " under 1

By the time of the 1870 Census this same family was living in Porter Township and spelled their last name Polliard. In the "Flick Family Tree" they spelled the name Pollard.

There is also a Mary Pollyard buried in Squirrel Hill Cemetery with Frederick Hilliard and several other Hilliards. She was born in 1811 and died 1869. Possibly this is the same Mary from the 1850 Census, Porter Township which lists two women as head of separate households in the same house
Susannah Hillyard 50 F
Isach " 22 M
Nancy " 16 F
Frances " 15 M
George " 12 M

Mary Polliard 39 F
Cristopher Hilliard 19 M
John " 17 M
Margaret A. " 15 F
Isaac " 13 M
Frederick " 9 M
Samuel " 7 M
Madison Polliard 3 M

(This mystery is now partially solved thanks to the research efforts of Gary A. Polliard. The Mary Polliard in the census is the same as the Mary Pollyard buried in Squirrel Hill Cemetery. She was originally Mary Shick. She married Frederick Hilliard, had several children, he died and then she married Louis Polliard. They moved to Kentucky. They had a child James Madison Polliard. Louis died so Mary and all her children moved back to Porter Township. He has not been able to discover how this Louis Polliard is related to the other Polliards.) 
Balliet, Nicholas (I3834)
226 From the Clarion County Democrat, March 7, 1895.

"Mrs. Rachel McKinney, aged 96 and one of the first settlers in Venango County died at her home in Salem, near Oil City last Friday night. By marriage she was the aunt of Mrs. John Turney of Sligo of Clarion County and was thus related to a large number of residents of this county. Being a great aunt to some of them and being a great great Aunt to others of them. She was the mother of 12 children. Her husband Samuel McKinney was born in 1786 and died in 1871. Received a silver medal for conspicuous gallantry in Perry's victory on Lake Erie in the War of 1812." 
McKinney, Jane Emerick (I0058)
227 From, "The Balliet, Balliett, Balliette, Balyeat, Bolyard, and Allied Familes," by Stephen Clay, Published by Thos. J. Moran's Sons, Inc., Baton Rouge, La. 1968. Call No. RG 929.2 Bal Library of Congress #68-23012

pg 786

"If the assumption is accepted that JOHANNES was the son of Johan Nicolas and Susanna Alleman Baillet, this hypothetical delineation can be strengthened by the known facts of the Alleman family. Susanna Alleman was probably the daughter or a near relative, of Jacob Alleman who arrived at Philadelphia October 20, 1747. the passenger list records two Jacob Allemans (Strassburger, V2 p 369). It is believed they were father and son. Jacob Alleman, Jr. and his wife Elizabeth Barbara had a son, Christian Alleman, born December 6, 1766 in Lehigh County, Pennsylvania and baptized December 14 of the same year. The Egypt Church records show that Catharine Balliet, daughter of PAULUS Balliet was one of the sponsors when Christian was baptized (PA 6S, V 6, p 14). This indicates a close relationship between the two families.

No record was discovered showing that John Nicolas and Susanna Alleman Balliet came to America. Since both had near relatives in Pennsylvania - PAULUS and JOSEPH, cousins of Johan Nicolas Balliet, and Jacob Alleman, father of Susanna, and his family had settled in what is now Lehigh County, Pennsylvania in 1747 - it is within the realm of possibility that the family of Johan Nicolas emigrated to Pennsylvania a few years later, possibly between the years 1755 and 1760. many of the early ship lists are incomplete or missing."

"JOHANNES Balliet's will, written in 1800, states: 'Sealed in the presence of my Mother and executor in Luzerne County. From this statement one can but concluded that Susanna Alleman Balliet was also
living in Luzerne County and that Johan Nicolas undoubtedly died in Pennsylvania previous to 1800. Johan Nicolas and Susanna possibly had other children, but no substantiating records were found.

Numerous published accounts of the early history of Pennsylvania and the descendants of JOHANNES and John of PAULUS have, in part, in part, accepted the records of both in referring to or in delineating the line of 'John Balliet'. Consequently, the traditions and facts of JOHANNES' line has become so entwined with that of John of PAULUS that it is unlikely an accurate record can be assembled at this late date." 
Balliet, John Nicholas (I3838)
228 From, "The Balliet, Balliett, Balliette, Balyeat, Bolyard, and Allied Families," by Stephen Clay, Published by Thos. J. Moran's Sons, Inc., Baton Rouge, La. 1968. Call No. RG 929.2 Bal Library of Congress #68-23012

pg 785

"Johan Nicolas Bailliet (Sr.), the third son of Jacob Baillet, was born November, 1680 and died January 24, 1745 at Schalback, Lorraine, France. He married Margaretha Durand, who was born in 1684 and died at Schalback on March 27, 1766. They had eight children, names unknown. It is known from records at Schalback that a Johan Nicolas Baillet (Jr.?), a cousin of PAULUS and JOSEPH, married Susanna Alleman on November 17, 1743. (Laux p 18) It is not unreasonable to assume that this Johan Nicolas Balliet, Jr. was a son of Johan Nicolas and Margaretha Baillet. It is believed that Johan and Susanna settled in Switzerland shortly after the death of Johan, Sr. in 1745. . . JOHANNES Baillet came from Switzerland; whether he was born there or in Schalback is not known. Switzerland had long before become a place of refuge for thousands of the persecuted Huguenots of France."  
Balliet, Johan Nicholas (I3840)
229 From, "The Balliet, Balliett, Balliette, Balyeat, Bolyard, and Allied Families," by Stephen Clay, Published by Thos. J. Moran's Sons, Inc., Baton Rouge, La. 1968. Call No. RG 929.2 Bal Library of Congress #68-23012

pg 798

"Johannes Balliet was married in Lehigh County, Pennsylvania, October 7, 1771 to Maria Barbara Schneider, a daughter of Daniel and Catharine Schneider. She was born in 1755 and baptized October 5 of the same year as recorded in the records of the Egypt Reformed Church of Lehigh County.

They remained in Lehigh county, where seven of their nine children were born, until the spring of 1784. Members of the party that went to bury the dead of the Sugar Loaf Massacre of 1782, on returning home, told Johannes of 'the beautiful and fertile valley'. These stories 'so fired Balliet's imagination, that he was determined to seek it out and make a home for himself and his posterity'. At the time the two youngest children were Maria and Daniel, and although they were not mentioned, the five older children undoubtedly accompanied their parents on this journey through the enchanted paths and trails into Sugar Loaf Valley.

Johannes Balliet was a remarkable man. From 1784, where he 'solitary and alone' became the first white settler in Sugar Loaf Valley, until 1800, a period of only 16 years, he and his family with their bare hands hued a 'castle' from the virgin land and forest. He built the first log cabin, which, with all it contained, was destroyed by fire in 1786. Not to be discouraged, he then erected the first frame house in Butler (Township), which was still standing a hundred years later. He was the first to till the soil; set out the first orchard; constructed the first saw mill. he was the first pioneer inn-keeper of Butler Township; set up the first blacksmith shop; helped organize the St. John's Reformed Church, which he supported both morally and financially; and he fathered the first white child, Abraham Balliet, born in Butler Township. In this interval of time he also acquired over twenty-three hundred acres of land."

The original warrants for these lands are on file in the Department of Internal Affairs of Pennsylvania at Harrisburg and can be found in: Patent Book "P", Vol. 54, p. 313; Patent Book "H", Vol. 36, p 44; and Patent Book "H", Vol. 28, p. 513."

"JOHANNES Balliet was a soldier of the Revolutionary War. He served as Captain (or clerk) of the First Battalion of Northampton county under Lt. Col. Henry Gieger; and as a Court Martial Man under Col. John Sigfried of the 4th Battalion of Northampton County."

pg. 790
"In the same volume, (PA 5S, V8, p 54), pages 43 and 63, in "A Muster Roll of 5th class of the 1st Battalion of Northampton County militia, under the command of Lt. Col'l. Henery Giger, November 15, 1781" is listed "John Balliet (JOHANNES Balliet) Clark (Clerk - with the rank of Captain). Time of entry Nov 15. Time of service 1 month 18 days". This is from November 15, 1781 to January 1, 1782."

pg. 791

"Johannes Balliet died December 25, 1831 in Newport Township, Luzerne county, Pennsylvania. His will, written January 24, 1800 was registered on April 23, 1800 and is on file in Will Book A, page 34 at the county court house, Wilkes Barre, Pennsylvania. It was probated February 28, 1832. . .The original will is in German. A literal translation and a legal interpretation of the translation was prepared by Blythe H. Evans, Jr., Attorney of Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania."

"Johannes wrote his will in 1800. Nicholas' children Jacob & Elizabeth were mentioned in his will. Johannes left Nicholas 358 acres in Hazel Twp., Lehigh Co., Pa. when he died in 1831."

From "Polliard Family History" by Barbara Oswald

"North Whitehall, Pa. was changed to Ballietsville on March 7, 1876. Ballietsville is the oldest village in North Whitehall Township. Stagecoaches changed horses at the Ballietsville Inn. The Ballietsville Inn and the stages are sill across the street from each other. The Indians received their supplies from the State there.

Union Church (combined Reformed & Lutheran) in North Whitehall Twp. was originally known as Schlosser's Church. It was erected in 1755. Original pulpit is on second floor of present church, located at Neffs, Pa. May 27, 1797 the cornerstone of the next church was laid. Present church was built May 28, 1971. Balliets are buried there.

Paulus Balliet was listed as a Palatine imported on the ship Robert and Alice of Dublin, Walter Goodman, Commander, from Rotterdam, last of Dover. There were 320 passengers, Walter Goodman signed the list. (From book, Thirty Thousand Names of Immigrants in Pa., page 118). 1800 Census lists Jacob, Joseph Sr., Joseph Jr., Leonard, Stephen, Jacob, John and Stephen in Luzerne County."

Barbara Oswald also found record of a "Paulus Balliet deed from Richard & Thomas Penn to Paul Polyard, 12th April 1749 for 97/100/160 Acres of land in Whitehall Twp., Northampton Co.) he was called Nicholas Balliet now called Polliard (Polyard, Pollyard) in Clarion County."

There is a town in Eastern Pennsylvania known as Ballietsville. There is an inn there known as the Ballietsville Inn. An early map of the area showed several Balliet families living in the area. The following is copied from the flyer in the Ballietsville Inn. THE NAMES MENTIONED IN THIS STORY DO NOT MATCH OUR FAMILY LINEAGE, HOWEVER THERE IS ONE INTRIGUING SIMILARITY. The wife of our Stephen Balliet, son of Johannes Balliet, married a Margaret Wottring, born in 1777. This story has a Maria Magdelena Wotring married to a Paulus Balliet. Could they be related?

From the above mentioned book there is quoted a report by a Michael Bisline, Road Supervisor of work completed in 1810. It is "the oldest document giving us information of who were in the township at that time. . . The list contains about thirty names, only those of interest are given 'George Drum, Jacob Spath, Phillip and Nicholas Wottering, Joseph Parke, Michael Knouse, Jacob Rittinhouse, Abraham and Stephen Balliet, etc."

"The Ballietsville Inn has been in continuous operation since 1750; and its history is the history of Lehigh and Northampton Counties and the townships of North Whitehall, South Whitehall and Whitehall.

Paulus Balliet received his first known license on June 22, 1746 to 'operate an inn on a frequently traveled road.' the inn which opened on June 14, 1750 was built in the virgin forest as a sturdy log cabin which stood 90 years before the present brick structure replaced it. Social life on the frontier was centered in the church, in the school and in the inn. The center of business was often at the inn.

First called the Whitehall Inn, the building also housed a post office; was a thriving trading post for the Indians and served for over 100 years as a station for the stagecoaches traveling between Philadelphia, Easton and Mauch Chunk (now Jim Thorpe.)

Down through the years, as the inn passed from person to person, it has been enlarged, redecorated, restored -- somehow the inn has kept its twin quality of hospitality and readiness for any action that may come. One can imagine the jolly repartee of early colonists; the earnest and urgent conversation about revolution; the heavy tread of the Militiamen; the call of the stagecoach masters.

Today, the inn continues to give its guests a warm welcome, extend its hospitality and give a delicious repast fit for the most discriminating gourmet."

. . . "Paulus Balliet, founder of the Inn, was born in 1717 in France. At the age of 21 he was compelled, with many other French Protestants, to seek refuge in foreign countries, on account of the terrible persecutions of the Huguenots. He embarked for America on board Ship Robert Oliver on September 10, 1738. He located on a tract of 97 acres of what became known as the Old Balliet Stand, about 8 miles North of Allentown where the village of Ballietsville is now located. Paulus Balliet married Maria Magdelena Wotring who was also of unquestionable French Huguenot Stock, at a date unknown. Tradition has it that Paulus and Maria were wed in 1749. The Wotrings like the Balliets who were forced into exile and deprived of their worldly goods, became farmers, tradesmen, innkeepers and professional men in their new found homes.

Paulus Balliet, in addition to his plantation, carried on a mercantile business as well as that of an innkeeper. As early as 1750, he was licensed as an Innkeeper in what is now Ballietsville. On June 14, 1750 Paulus was allowed a license On a frequently traveled road. The old county court records show that the license was renewed on June 22, 1756 and again on June 22, 1759. The original log building was in use until 1840 when the main portion was replaced by a brick structure. As I mentioned before, it was called Whitehall Inn and he had a huge sign of a foaming bowl painted and hung on a high post. After Paulus Balliet died, the record shows the successive proprietors were Colonel Stephen Balliet, Paul Balliet, Dr. Jesse Hallman, John Schantz, Joel Lentz, Charles Leinberger, John Smith, David Kline, Edwin Deibert, Sylvester Mosenheimer, Elmer Hassler, John Roth, Clinton Frantz and Joseph Poplaskie. The present owners since 1971 are my partner Richard Wotring Gemmel - a direct descendent of Paulus's wife, Maria Magdelena Wotring Balliet and myself and it is now known as The Ballietsville Inn.

Whitehall Inn served as a post office and for over a hundred years it was station for the stage coaches traveling between Philadelphia, Easton and Mauch chunk or Jim Thorped, as it is now called. The horses were changed there, leaving a foursome to rest while a fresh team took the coach on to the next station.

Before the Revolution, Paulus did a thriving business trading with the Indians, who called him Bowl Balliet. It was thought by some that the Indians, in the massacre of October 8, 1763, intended to attack his home but by mistake went to homes of his neighbors, the Schneiders, Marks and Mickleys. It is stated that the Indians were returning home from Bethlehem, Pa. where they had exchanged their furs for supplies and stopped at Stenton's Tavern for the night. The next morning they discovered most of their supplies missing; when they complained they were driven off. The Indians, when wronged by a white man, took revenge on their enemies without regard to age or sex. It therefore happened frequently that the innocent suffered many times for the deeds of the guilty.

The Indians, on the way home the morning of October 8, 1763, proceeded to the home of John Jacob Mickley where they met three of his children in the woods and immediately murdered two of them. They then proceeded to the homes of Marks and Schneider, both of which were burned down after they had murdered Schneider, his wife and three children, and wounded two daughters, scalping one, and leaving both for dead. Marks and his family escaped. These homesteads were less than 2 miles from the Paulus Plantation. By the way, this was the last Indian massacre in Lehigh County.

During these Indian raids the settlers would leave their homes and seek refuge in forts like Ballietsville. The actual fort of Ballietsville is still located underneath the Inn's kitchen. Paulus Balliet was very active in the protection of the community from these attacks. He formed and equipped companies of soldiers to fight the Indians. The Pennsylvania Archives reveal disbursement by the Assembly in payment of supplies furnished by Paulus Balliet. '1757, November 8th to Balliet, for provisions supplied Provincial forces and Indians 550 pounds 19 shilling and 8 pence There is an endless list in the Pennsylvania Archives of such payments.

In September 1757, Margaret Frantz and another girl named Solt were taken prisoners by the Indians while washing flax in a creek on her father's land near Ballietsville. The Solt girl, daughter of Paulus Balliet's sister Maria Catherina, lived with the Indians for a number of years before she was restored to her parents. It is said that she never married but used her gained knowledge of Indian medicine to take care of the ill in the community.

Paulus Balliet died on March 19, 1777. In the years he acquired hundreds of acres of land. In his will he 'bequeath unto his son Stephen all that Plantation in Towamensing Township, over the Blue Mountain. His son Paul received all that tract of land which he bought of Samuel Morris together with about 100 or more acres to be joined and to his son John, the Old Plantation whereon I live now.'

Colonel Stephen Balliet was born in 1753 in Whitehall Township as the 4th child and 3rd son of Paulus Balliet. It is apparent from the accounts and records that 'Colonel Stephen assumed much of the responsibility of managing the plantation, store and Inn some years before the death of this father. Colonel Balliets's home was surrounded by immense forests, the winning of which into fruitful fields meant incessant toil, to which the children contributed their daily chores.' The distant Blue Mountains, with the Lehigh Water Gap and the Wind Gap in full view, was pictured in young Stephen's imagination as regions of great peril and adventure to the brave who would dare to explore them. Colonel Balliet had much to do with the development of this section. While doing that besides running the Inn he also devoted much time to fighting the Revolutionary War.

In 1776 when Pennsylvania joined the other colonies in the war with England, a new State Government was organized. During the troublesome time a lot of activities of colonel Balliet can be traced. I will not make the attempt to list each and every reference, but only those that will tend to illustrate his diversified ability and accomplishments. 'On January 31, 1777 to pay Capt. Stephen Balliet 422 pounds. This payment for expenses incurred in taking into custody persons disloyal to the newly formed government Colonel Stephen was appointed ag agent for forfeited estates, etc. During this time he was also commanding troops to fight not only against the English, but also equally important, against Indians and colonists called Tories who favored the English.

In 1777, as the British approached Philadelphia, the Headquarters of the Government was moved to Lancaster. General Washington had ordered the Army supplies and equipment moved to the Lehigh Valley where he intended to set up Winter quarters. The plan was later changed and Valley Forge was selected. The Liberty Bell was "secreted in a load of hay" as part of the baggage train of the Army. According to tradition Colonel Stephen assisted in the planning and brought the wagon train with the Liberty Bell to Allentown, where it was buried beneath the floor of the Zion Reformed Church. Records show the Colonel Stephen Balliet commanded a Company at the Battle of Brandywine in September 1777 and at the Battle of Germantown in October 1777 and finally in May 1780 he was appointed to command the 1st Battalion, Pennsylvania Northampton County. It has to be noted that Lehigh County was not founded until 1812, so all records before that date refer to Northampton County from which in 1812 Lehigh County was taken.

Stephen Balliet died August 4, 1821. He had two sons Stephen Jr. and Joseph. Joseph Jr. had a son, Paul Balliet, born May 11, 1811 in Ballietsville. He attended school in the area's first English school. It had been built by his father on their property in Ballietsville. Private tutors not only were teaching the Balliets but also all the neighbors' children. The building was erected in 1816 about 100 yards Southeast of Ballietsville, and was plastered within, which was quite an innovation as others of the time were generally rude structures of logs. The schoolhouse was used until 1865 when a new brick building was erected. In later years he attended school in Easton, after which he was in charge of a store in Heidelberg Township, which he managed in connection with his father's iron furnace. Finally in 1857 he was the landlord of the Old Whitehall Inn at Ballietsville until his death in 1886." 
Balliet, Johannes (I3836)

pg. 408

"Galbraith Stewart secured a large tract of land lying north of the present site of West Middletown, of which town he was practically the founder, and after his marriage erected a shop and the first cabin at that point. It was on the north side of the road much traveled by emigrants for Ohio County, Va., and was for some time the only building in the neighborhood. Thus there was plenty of work for the smith, and as time passed the place became a stopping point for westward bound emigrants, so much so that Mr. Stewart erected a commodious house for the accommodation of travelers. In time he gave up his work in the blacksmith shop as his duties in the tavern increased. He prospered, erected several other buildings, and thus formed the nucleus of what has since become West Middletown. Eleven children were born to this union, ten of whom reached maturity." 
Stewart, Galbraith I (I0125)
231 Frontier Families of Toby Township, Clarion County, Pennsylvania, Stewarts, page 15, lists his birth date as August 17, 1877, as a twin of Jennie Gertrude, born August 14, 1877. Stewart, William W. (I0783)
232 Galbraith and Robert Stewart told their grandchildren many times the story that Mary Gass who was a very fair and beautiful girl like her Holland ancestors, had been stolen by the Indians and that William Stewart was one of the rescuing party. She stayed in the wigwams for several years until taken to Canada. The rescuing party was headed by then governor of the Colony of Pennsylvania. (Source - A Family of Millers and Stewart by Dr. Robert F. Miller, 1909) Gass, Mary (I0011)
233 Galbraith Stewart resided at West Middletown, Hopewell Township, Washington County, Pennsylvania, where he kept the first hostelry in the village in 1795. His name appears a number of times in the land records of Brooke County, Virginia (now West Virginia), where he bought and sold lots in Charlestown (now Wellsburg). (Source - Stewart Clan Magazine, Volume XI-XV, 1933-1938, page 308)

Galbraith Stewart was practically the founder of the prosperous town of West Middletown. He learned the blacksmith's trade and married Elizabeth Scott. (Source - History of Washington County, Pennsylvania, Beers, page 969) 
Stewart, Galbraith I (I0125)
234 George T. Laughlin of 12 9th Ave, (Clarion) died at 5:40 a.m. Tuesday. He was 73. Born Nov. 28, 1891, in Porter Township, Clarion County, he was the son of David Ellsworth and Nettie Henry Laughlin. He was married January 31, 1917 to Ruth Hoover, who survives. He is also survived by one daughter, Mrs. Milford E. (Lucille) Hardy of Erie, one sister, Mrs. Jesse L. Campbell, three brothers, Albert R. and W. M, and Fred. Two sisters and two brothers preceded him in death. Interment will be in Oak Grove Cemetery, Porter Township. Oil City Derrick, October 27, 1965 Laughlin, George T. (I2499)
235 Harry Enoch advises on June 22, 2014 that:

"John Gass, son of Henry Gass," left a will in Clark County (WB 4:46, probated in 1816) naming Ellenor Robinson, Rachel, Polly, Ruth, Rebecca, Ann, James and Jane Gass; he states that all of these legatees are children of his brother James Gass.

I list it here for information and for future follow up. (Note to File - JP Rhein)
Gess, John (I0263)
236 HARTMAN, JOSIAH -- Josiah Hartman, one of the most prominent and highly respected farmers near Sligo, passed away at his home late early Thursday morning, Nov. 13, 1919. Mr. Hartman was born in Columbia county, Pa., April 8, 1837 and was aged 82 years, 7 months, and 5 days at the time of his death. He was the son of Wm. Hartman and Susan (Fulmer) Hartman, and came with his parents to the Hartman homestead at Mt. Airy in March, 1840. Here he grew to manhood. In the spring of 1857 he went to Curllsville and learned the moulders trade with the Keystone Foundry. He followed this trade, working at Curllsville and Reidsburg until he married. On Nov. 13, 1862, he was married to Miss Elizabeth Smith. The following spring he purchased the farm where he lived all the remaining part of his life. Mr. Hartman was a remarkable man in many ways. He had a remarkable memory and could recall with the utmost ease past events and dates. He could tell you when this man was born and when he came into the neighborhood. He could recall the big snow of September 26, 1844, and also the big frost of June, 1859. He was also a man of fine Christian character. He was a member of the church from early manhood, having been brought up in the Reformed Church, later on going with his wife to the St. John's Evangelical Lutheran Chruch at Churchville. At the time of his death he was a faithful member of the Presbyterian Church at Sligo uniting with this church because advancing age prevented him from going to Churchville. He held several offices in his church, also in his township, during his active life. He not only kept the faith but before he died gave abundant evidence that his faith had kept him. He knew and said that his Redeemer lived, and that he was going home to be with God. Two brothers remains: S.J. Tartman [sic] of Curllsville, and Aaron Hartman of Clarion township. His wife died October 17, 1906. One son and three daughters have gone on before. The following children remain to mourn the loss of a good father: John W., Mrs. W.S. Wait, Mrs. R.M. McKinney, of Sligo; Mrs. J.C. McKenedy, Emlenton; Mrs. D.B. Brosius, Knox, and Etta at home. Twenty grandchildren and three great grandchildren survive. Funeral services were held Nov. 15 at his late residence, Rev. Bittinger of Ambridge, Rev. Ewing and Rev. Richards of Sligo, officiating. The remains were interred in the Lutheran Cemetery at Churchville, six grandchildren acting as pall bearers. Source: Clarion Democrat, November 20, 1919. Hartman, Josiah (I4080)
237 He and his wife owned the land surrounding the cemetery by land patent signed by Andrew Jackson, president of the United States. Galbraith, Aeneas Sharp (I9873)
238 He is a ruling elder in the Presbyterian Church and was commissioned justice of peace by Governor Pollock on March 13, 1855 for five years. He was thre first postmaster at Pollock p.o. and served for a term of two years, 1869 and 1870. He now has eight oil wells on his farm of seventy five acres, three of which are producing. (Source - History of Clarion County, A. J. Davis, Syracuse, N.Y., D. Mason & Co., Publishers, 1887.) Family F3372
239 He was born in 1746 in what is now Franklin County, Pennsylvania. Young, John (I0154)
240 Heber Rankin met with Sir Jocelyn Harry Stewart. 12th Baronet, at his home 'Carick Brack House', Convoy, in County Donegal on June 10, 1965. at which time the Photostat copy of the Irish Times article of November 10, 1940 was given to him. I believe this is the Sir Jocelyn Harry Stewart who is married to Constance Mary Shillaber. Sir Jocelyn is the 7th great grandson of Sir William Stewart, I st Baronet. Heber Rankin is the 7th great grandson of Sir William Stewart, I st Baronet, and the 6th cousin of Sir Jocelyn Harry Stewart.

Heber was a very knowledgeable and thorough genealogist and there is probably some additional details of this meeting in his notes and files, as well as some further documentation as to the lineage of Alexander Stewart who married Rebecca Galbraith. The book "Frontier Families " was authored by his niece, Janice Yingling. There is, however, no detail or source reference shown that would confirm that Alexander Stewart, married to Rebecca Galbraith, is the son of William Stewart, High Sheriff of County Donegal. Heber's files are in the custody of an elderly daughter and are not available at this time. I understand that his daughter plans to contribute the files to a historical society, most likely Clarion County Historical Society, located in northwestern Pennsylvania. At that time, hopefully, some further information may be forthcoming.

"Notes and Queries", by William Henry Egle a respected genealogist dealing in the history of early Pennsylvania families. states in the late 1890's that "William Stewart, who was a lieutenant in the Cumberland County, Pennsylvania Militia during the revolutionary War, was the youngest son of Alexander Stewart and Rebecca Galbraith of Fort Stewart and Camemauga, County Donegal, Ireland. William was bom about 1738 at Greenhill near Letterkenny in County Donegal." A good portion of Egle's work however, relied on interviews with descendants, which in a number of cases proved to be inaccurate.

I have queried several knowledgeable fellow researchers in the United States on this Stewart line and all have apparently relied on Miller's work. I have probably looked at over two dozen or so published articles or books on the Stewarts in which Alexander Stewart, son of William Stewart, bom about 1653, is listed as being married to Rebecca Galbraith. There is a good possibility that Heber's files may contain the appropriate documentation. Note to File by JP Rhein)
Rankin, Heber Ivo (I0754)
241 Heber Rankin shows Elizabeth Forbes married to a ??? Leonard with the following children; Harvey and Rebecca married to James Woods - they had two children; Janet and Eva. I have listed it here for future reference. (Note to File - JP Rhein) Forbes, Elizabeth (I2994)
242 Henry STUART (E. Darnley)

Born: 7 Dec 1545, Temple Newsham, Yorkshire, England
Acceded: 1565
Died: 10 Feb 1567, Provost's House, Kirk o'the Field, Edinburgh, Scotland
Buried: Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh, Scotland

Notes: Duke of Albany 1565, Earl of Ross, Lord Ardmannoch. The Complete Peerage vol.VII,p.600.

Father: Matthew STUART (4° E. Lennox)
Mother: Margaret DOUGLAS (C. Lennox)

Married: MARY STUART (Queen of Scotland) 29 Jul 1565, Holyrood Palace, Edinburgh, Scotland

1. JAMES I STUART (King of Great Britain)

Husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, was the son of Matthew Stuart, 4º Earl of Lennox, and lady Margaret Douglas, daughter of Margaret Tudor, Queen of James IV of Scotland, by her second husband, Archibald, Earl of Angus; this made Darnley a candidate for succession to the English throne after Elizabeth I.

He was born in England in 1546, and brought up there, where his father was in exile. In 1565, at the age of 19, he was allowed by Queen Elizabeth to follow his father to Scotland, and within a short time he was married to Mary, at Holyrood House, on 29 Jul 1565. The motives of the Scottish Queen were predominantly political; Darnley was a Catholic and his right of succession to the English throne reinforced Mary's own. However, the handsome appearance and courtly manners of the dissolute, spoiled and arrogant young man must also have impressed Mary because at first she was infatuated with him. Historians have speculated that Darnley was allowed by Elizabeth to go to Mary's court because she foresaw Mary's infatuation, and did not doubt her ability to control Mary and Scotland through the weak-willed Darnley. But Elizabeth reckoned without the stubborn royal character of her Scottish cousin.
The alliance was offensive both to Elizabeth and to the Scottish reformers.

Within a short time Darnley had shown himself to be a vicious and dissipated man. Most nights he roamed the streets of Edinburgh with low-life companions in search of sexual adventures. He failed to participate in the business of the royal court. Mary refused to ask Parliament to grant him the crown matrimonial, making him a king in title but not in influence. Darnley was soon after induced to side with the reformers, and sharing their dislike and jealousy of David Rizzio, the Queen's secretary. The more outraged Mary became over her husband's stupidity and lewd behaviour, the more she looked to Rizzio for consolation. Some of the nobles claimed that Rizzio was a secret agent of the Pope and had usurped their proper places beside the Queen. They easily cajoled the gullible Darnley into believing that Mary and Rizzio were lovers. Wounded in pride and suspicious of Mary's relationship with Rizzio, Darnley joined a conspiracy against him. On 9 Mar 1566, Darnley and a group of nobles seized Rizzio in the Queen's presence and stabbed him some 56 times. It is unclear whether Darnley himself did the dragging or the stabbing or whether one of his henchmen performed the actual slaughter. They may have hoped simultaneously to shock the six months pregnant Queen into fatal illness. She was then taken prisoner by the lairds, but managed to convince Darnley that he was only tolerated by them as an expedient to their plans, and would be done away with in his turn. Mary and Darnley managed to escape, and rode off through the darkness to safety. Darnley soon found himself without a friend in either camp.

Between the Queen and Darnley thenceforth there was nothing but, irreconcilable aversion and disgust. A divorce was proposed, but Mary would not agree to it. Meanwhile the Earl of Bothwell had won the favour or the Queen. Possibly with Mary's knowledge, there was then formed a plot to murder Darnley, one of whose leaders was Bothwell. The Earl of Morton was later executed for his part in it, and others may have had a hand.

By the time Mary gave birth to Lord Darnley's son in Jun 1566, her husband had backslid into a life of debauchery, neglecting his royal duties and displaying a sullen resentment towards Mary's relationship with Bothwell. In his frustration, Darnley took to thwarting his wife in every way possible, publicly insulting her and complaining loudly to others of his mistreatment, and immersing himself in the fleshpots of Edinburgh and the other cities of Scotland. His wenching and drinking and gaming caused great humiliation to his wife and to the Scottish government.

By spring of 1566 Darnley was even rumored to be writing to the Pope and the French and Spanish kings with accusations of his wife's laxity in restoring the Catholic faith in Scotland - though his own adherance to Catholicism was nominal. Mary's council, religiously divided, could nevertheless not afford a King who behaved so irresponsibly as to complain about the Queen to other monarchs. A meeting was held at Craigmillar on 20 Nov 1566 to discuss what might be done about the situation. Mary hesitated to divorce Darnley or to annull the marriage, fearing the effect on her son's legitimate claim to succeed her. Her councillers, among them the Earl of Bothwell, assured her that the situation would be resolved without resorting to such risky acts. Mary, in a deep depression, spoke of her desire to die or to give up the throne and retire to France, but her council promised that such drastic measures would be unnecessary.

But when the Queen learned he was seriously ill in Glasgow, she travelled to his bedside and later arranged for a horse-litter to carry him back to Edinburgh. Darnley, convalescing from either smallpox or syphilis, arrived in Edinburgh early in 1567 and lodged in Kirk o' Field, a house just outside the city. Across the city Queen Mary and the baby prince were safely ensconced at Holyrood House. Unknown to Darnley, miscreants had for some time been packing the cellars of Kirk o' Field with enough gunpowder to blow the structure to smithereens.
On the night of 9 Feb around two am, after a visit from Mary, the house was blown up by gunpowder, a blast heard and felt throughout Edinburgh. In the morning the bodies of Darnley and a page were found in an adjoining garden beside a pear tree. Darnley's nightgown-clad corpse appeared not to have been killed by the explosion but by strangulation. Details of the murder remain a historical mystery. Historians speculates that Darnley had tried to escape just before the blast but had been intercepted by his murderer before he could flee. Mary's subsequent failure to punish Bothwell and her hasty marriage to him led to the revolt that soon dethroned her.

Darnley was the father of James I of England.

Stuart, Henry Lord Darnley (I1934)
243 His baptismal name was John, but in deference to the wish of the people, he adopted the name Robert. Stewart, John succeeded as Robert III (I0724)
244 His Lordship died without surviving issue, August 14, 1769, when the Peerage expired, but the Baronetcy devolved upon his heir-at-law-, Annesley Stewart of Fort Stewart, whose claim to the title is derived by descent from Thomas, born 1630, second surviving son of Sir William Stewart, first Baronet. (Source - The Irish Times, Saturday, November 10, 1940)

"William Stewart, born April 7 1709, succeeded his father in 1727 as the fifth baronet and the third viscount of Mountjoy. Having inherited from his mother immense land holdings in Ireland and England he was created in 1747 earl of Blessington in the peerage of Ireland.
Lord Blessington, as he preferred to be called, was enabled to devote his sixty years of life to luxury and high living. His two sons died before he did, without issue . 'He went to the Continent with his lady and only son," Rev. Samuel Stone wrote :'This son lived to the age of 17 and died of the smallpox in the south of France about the year 1760, or later, when the late earl of Blessington returned to England with his lady. He resided mostly at Bach, and died a few years ago. His titles of Mountjoy and Blessington became extinct, but that of baronet came to the present Sir Annesley Stewart, being descended lineally from the brother of the 2nd baronet." William Stewart, died in August 1769, at his house in London and was buried at Silchester." (Source - Stewart Clan Magazine, Tome I, Volume 37, February 1960) 
Stewart, Sir William (I1369)
edited by A. J. Davis, 1887



THE territory embraced within the present limits of Sligo borough was settled at an early date, but by whom is not definitely known to the writer. The Craigs settled here early, and Richard Reynolds opened a store where A. B. Miller's house now stands. The furnace being built in 1845, made the furnace bank a lively, village. The furnace used charcoal. It shipped its metal at Callensburg in boats on the Clarion. William Lyon, J. P. Lyon, and other gentlemen of wealth owned the furnace. The company had a store in connection with the furnace and also several farms.

About 1860 or 1861 the Western Union Telegraph Company established an office at this point, and in 1873 the Sligo Branch Railroad was built. During war times, Sligo being a telegraph station, was a central point for gathering news from the field, and many an excited crowd assembled about the store and office in those days.

The Lyon family lived in lordly style, and their houses and grounds, now owned by J. B. Miller, yet remain as monuments of their once proud state. Compared with the usual dwellings of those days, these houses were palaces, while their coachman and servants in attendance gave a southerly air to the surroundings, and even the employees of the store and offices affected to be like their employers. The Lyon family were a genteel people. The workmen respected them as such, and when D. E. Lyon, the oldest son of J. P Lyon, went into the army with Captain Ewing's company, the boys who went with him and their friends felt that a barrier between wealth and labor had been torn away.

The new town of Sligo was laid out by the old furnace company in 1871 Thomas Berrean, sr., built the first house in the new town. The company soon erected a new brick store building, now occupied by Hodil & Company and in 1873 it erected the Sligo Hotel. Other buildings were soon erected among which were the M. E. Church in 1873, and the Presbyterian Church in 1873-4. About the same time the public school-house was erected.

In 1878, on the 20th of September, the borough of Sligo was organized with Dr. J. N. Bech as burgess, and John Anderson, D. C. Low, M. M. Conrad, A. J. Switzer, Conrad Hahn, and George Wagner as council. J. B. Ayres was high constable, and J. M. Craig justice of the peace.

The business houses at present are J. B. Miller & Son, Jacob Hodil, F. C McEwen, J. F. C. Thomas, and George W. Craig in the general store business; N. S. Coulter, drugs and groceries; Conrad Hahn, boots and shoes, and John Hartle, watchmaker.

The blacksmith shops are Low's and Silvis's. M. Anderson and John Shrum have wagon shops. John P. Greer & Son, at the foundation of the new town, dealt extensively in hardware. J. B. Miller's new mill was erected in 1879. In 1874 an Odd Fellows' Lodge was established here, and held its meetings in the brick store. In 1886 the lodge fitted up a room in the Greer building and moved into it. The G. A. R. Post also meets in the same room.

Near the railroad J. B. Miller has a fire-brick factory, where he manufactures and ships a great many fire-brick. These works were built in 1873.

In 1864-5 a well was drilled for oil near the old furnace, and in 1886 another was drilled up stream farther, near the railroad station. No oil was found, but a good vein of gas was struck, which is used for fuel and light. The well was purchased by J. B. Miller, who has laid lines to many of the houses in town.

Rev. J. Mateer was the resident minister of the Presbyterian Church for several years. He was succeeded by Rev. W. J. Wilson, and later by Rev. J. M. McCurdy. The M. E. Church has had the following ministers -. C. C. Hunt, Mr. Shepherd, D. C. Planett, S. J. Garnett, W. A. Baker, L. W. Showers, and Mr. Weldin.

The medical men have been Dr. William Reichard, Dr. Fisher, Dr. J. N. Bech, Dr. McAuley, and Dr. Armstrong.

At the time of Cleveland's election, Mr. Jacob Hodil was postmaster at Sligo post-office. At the beginning of the new administration Mr. Hodil promptly resigned his office. Mr. N. S. Coulter was appointed his successor.

The Sligo Branch Railroad has been used for transporting pig iron, tan bark, hoop poles, iron ore, timber, coal, and stock, all of these commodities being shipped at this point.

One of the oldest industries in the limits of the borough is Craig's woolen factory. In former times this factory wove a great deal, in addition to carding, spinning, and dyeing.

At one time the Atlantic Pipe Line Company shipped oil at this point. Their iron tanks were located on the hill across Licking. The enterprise was soon abandoned and the tanks torn down. Work is now in progress to open a large coal mine here this summer.

As a rule, the citizens of the town are industrious and intelligent, and much more attention is given to education than was formerly done. The town is pleasantly located on the Licking Creek, and embraces quite a large area. Its possibilities are good for a first-class town.
McKinney, John Henry (I0003)
246 Hit and was killed by a coal truck coming home for lunch from school in Rimersburg. Information furnished by Pegi Males Nelson. Craig, Connell F. (I4188)
247 Humphrey served as a minister in the Church of Ireland, an Anglican church, and rose to the senior position of Archdeacon. (Source - Article by Dave Colwell in the August 2009 issue of The Red Tower, Clan Galbraith Association, Vol. XXX. No 4, ISSN 1059-4264) Galbraith, Humphrey (I4245)
248 Humphrey [the second son], who matriculated at Glasgow University: but did not take his degree. He had a tack [long-term lease] of Thomdarroch [ten miles northwest of Culcreuch] and after the death of his brother Andrew, ca. 1530, became Tutor of Culcreuch for his nephew James IV [our Chief, following Andrew II] and, as such, was amerced [fine or other penalty] for having failed to attend an assize [trial] of 23 February 1533/34. On 3 April of that year, Humphrey and several others took part in the slaughter of William Stirling, 2nd of Glorat who was on his way from Stirling back to Dunbarton Castle of which he was Deputy Keeper under Matthew, 13th of Lennox then absent in France. In consequence of this Humphrey was put to the horn [denounced as a rebel and penalized--following three blasts of a horn in the Edinburgh public square] and on 26 April 1534 the Lords of the Council dismissed him from his Tutorship and, in his stead appointed his father?s first cousin Sir James Cunningham, last of Polmaise of the first line to be Tutor for the rest of James IV?s minority. Humphrey, who was still at the horn on 20 July 1535 when twenty seven persons accused of having been concerned in his attack on Glorat ?found surety [bonded, bailed] to underly the law at the next justice-aire [trial proceedings] of Dumbarton?. Humphrey was succeeded in the tack of Thomdarroch before 24 March 1546/47 by Walter Galbraith natural [bastard], original pagination> son of his brother Andrew II [no, it was their brother Walter, see commentary]. He [Humphrey] left a natural son of his own, James ancestor of ?The Pantler?s Line? [servants to the King, particularly his kitchen staff.
Source - The Galbraiths by Sir Harry Pirie-Gordon, The Red Tower, Clan Galbraith Association, Vol. XXXIV, No. 4, August 2013).

Editor?s Note.
Humphrey, brother to Chief Andrew, had a lease at Thomdarroch, about ten miles west of Culcreuch in the Napier Barony of Edinbellie, near the town of Balfron. Humphrey died in about 1547 and his nephew Walter (according to Pirie-Gordon), bastard son to Chief Andrew, occupied Thomdarroch. Robert (Chief Andrew?s youngest brother) acquired it before 1572 (National Archives of Scotland {NAS} document GD 430/135/2). This is in partial agreement with Pirie-Gordon as he uses 1582 as a transfer date to Robert. A more serious issue is that NAS GD430/116 (17 Jan 1543) makes it clear that it was the brother Walter to Andrew who held the Thomdarroch tack: ?Letters of reversion by Walter Galbraith, brother german (meaning brothers having the same set of parents?i.e., a full brother, not a half-brother) of deceased Andrew Galbraith of Culcreuch, in favour of Alexander Napier of Merchiston over lands of Easter Thomdar-roch, in earldom of Lennox and sheriffdom of Stirling, on payment of 300 merks Scots on St James altar in collegiate church of St Giles, Edinburgh, with a letter of tack of said lands for 5 years thereafter?. Chief Andrew did have an illegitimate son Walter, likely born while his father James III was still the chief and before Andrew married. There is a chance that both illegitimate Walters could have held the tack of Thomdarroch.
Galbraith, Humphrey (I4256)
249 I have elected to identify William Stewart, son of Alexander Stewart and Rebecca Galbraith as Lieutenant William Stewart (also Lieutenant William Stewart of Cumberland County, Pennsylvania. I have also elected to enter here various citations and references on Lieutenant Stewart in order to provide the most complete background and source reference.

Scottish Origins

Excerpts from a letter dated May 10, 1967 from Heber I. Rankin, 105 East Genesee Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to Clayton LeRoy Vogel (cousin of Joseph Philip Rhein). "I now have 18 generations back beyond our Revolutionary War Veteran, Lieutenant William Stewart, back to a little village of Dol in Brittany, France in the year 1040 A.D. Our ancestor came over to England with William The Conqueror and fought in the battle of Hastings in 1066. For his services in that battle he was given large tracts of land in England and about 100 years later some of the descendants came to Scotland in the train of David I of Scotland. They were given tracts of land in Renfrewshire and Ayrshire and one William Stewart came to the Laggan in County Donegal, Ireland about 1608 as Captain of a Scottish regiment that was sent to protect the English and Scottish settlers who came there at the time of the Plantation." As you will note later this is incorrect as our ancestor did not come over to England with William The Conqueror.

Irish Origins

Our forebear William Stewart (1582-1646)did come to what later became known as the Province of Ulster. It is largely bog and mountain land and contains the towns of Letterkenny, Donegal, Ballyshannon, Lifford, Stranorlar, Killybegs, and Bundoran. County Donegal was known as the Kingdom of Tirconnel in the old Irish administrative system. It was the territory of the powerful O'Donnell family. The other major family names were O'Boyle, O'Doherty, O'Friel, O'Sheil, MacWard, McLoughlin, McDunlevy, McGillespie, MacRearty, McGrath, McGonagle, O'Mulholland, O'Harkin, O'Derry, and O'Strahan. The McSweeneys, also a relatively common name in the county, were a gallowglass, or mercenary, family who arrived in the county in the thirteenth century.

The county wasn't affected much by the Norman invasion of the twelfth century and it wasn't until the later 16th century that England gained a foothold in the county. In 1592 they lost that when the O'Donnells, under their chief Red Hugh O'Donnell, joined with the O'Neills in a rebellion against the English. It ended in the defeat of the Ulster Chieftains in 1602 and the county was then included in the plantation of Ulster. The lands were confiscated and the native Irish owners were disinherited and their property given to English undertaker.

Among the names that became common were: Elliott, Campbell, Anderson, Baird, Thompson, McClintock, Hamilton, Browne, Barr, Stewart, Smith, Johnston, Irwin, Morrison, Young, and White.

In 1861 the census showed 75% Catholic, 11% Presbyterian (those of Scottish ancestry) and 13 percent Episcopalian (those of English extraction).

The Province of Ulster was not badly affected in the Great Famine of 1845-47. The population fell from 296,000 in 1841 to 255,000 in 1851. Thousands emigrated to America, Australia and Canada.

According to the Townlands Index there are two Green Hill’ and one Green Hills in County Donegal. The town lands of Green Hill are situated in the civil parishes of Aghanunshin, and Clondahorky located within the barony of Kilmacrenan. Green Hills is situated in the civil parish of Stranorlar located within the barony of Raphoe South. Carnemauga (Carnnamogagh) is a Townland situated in the civil parish of Conwal within the barony of Kilmacrenan. Newtoncunningham is a Townland situated in the civil parish of All Saints, located within the barony of Raphoe North. In the mid 1800's there were 117 Stewart properties listed for the barony Kilmacrenan and 17 Galbraith properties listed for Raphoe North. (Source - Donegal Ancestry, Old Meeting House, Back Lane, Ramelton, Letterkenny, County Donegal, Ireland)

Immigration to the Province of
Pennsylvania in Colonial America

Details on the family of Alexander Stewart and Rebecca Galbraith, parents of Lieutenant William Stewart, are contained their respective Notes Section.

Rebecca settled in Donegal Township, Lancaster County, Province of Pennsylvania in Colonial America on her arrival with her children in 1745. That area was located west of present day Chambersburg, Cumberland County in now present day Franklin County. Lieutenant William and Mary Gass made their home near Carlisle some 40 miles from where the fulling mill, owned by Benjamin Gass, was located and in which Lieutenant William had an interest.

The land records of Cumberland County, Pennsylvania fail to corroborate the assertion that William Stewart took up land in the vicinity of Carlisle as late as 1758. (Source - Stewart Clan Magazine, Tome G, page 134)

"Carlisle was the seat in 1751 of Cumberland County, in the Cumberland Valley, 18 miles southwest of Harrisburg. James le Tort, a French-Swiss Indian trader, settled with an Indian tribe near the site about 1720. The town, laid out in 1751, was named for Carlisle, Cumberland, England. It witnessed continuous conflict with the Indians until Benjamin Franklin negotiated a treaty in 1753. A provincial fort was built in 1756 during the French and Indian Wars, and Carlisle was the starting point for many military expeditions. The Anglo-French War was known in America as the French and Indian War, 1754-1763 and in Europe as the Seven Years' War, 1756-1763, was part of a worldwide, nine year's war 1754-1763 fought between France and Great Britain. It determined the control of the vast colonial territory in North America." (Source - Encyclopedia Britannica)

The Pennsylvania 1790 Federal Census lists a William Stewart in Washington County, Pennsylvania with following dependents:

Free white males 16 years and upward including heads of household 2
(This would have been Lt. William and John age 21 - Galbraith age 23 is not
listed separately and is unaccounted for - Benjamin was 28, married and is
separately listed)

Free white males under 16 years 3
(This would have been William, Robert and George)

Free white females, including heads of families 3
(This would have been mother Mary, Mary age 16 and Elizabeth age 13 -
Prudence was 26 years of age and married, Rebecca was 19 years of age -
she had 11 children so she more than likely was married in 1790)

The Pennsylvania 1800 Federal Census lists a William Stewart in Hopewell Township,
Washington County, Pennsylvania with following dependents:

Males between 16 and 26 years of age 3
(This would have been William (not married until 1802, Robert and George)

Males over 45 years of age 1
(This would have been Lt. William)

Females over 45 years of age 1
(This would have been mother Mary. Daughter Mary was 26 years of age and
and was married in 1792 and Elizabeth was 23 years of age and married
in 1796)

(Source - Review of copies of census records at Pennsylvania Historical Society, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania by JP Rhein)

"In 1790, William and Mary purchased 29 1/2 acres in Hopewell Township, Washington County, Pennsylvania. Washington County Deed Books. The deed of purchase (book 119, p 129) Identifies William Stewart as a blacksmith. When William sold this properly in 1804 (book 7516 p 400) his wife is identified as Mary Stewart. The 1790 Census for Hopewell is consistent with the number and ages of family members who would be living at home at that time. Thus, their residence in Washington County in 1790 is a matter of record.

“This leaves the period 1783-1790 open to conjecture. One interesting possibility, which fits the date framework, is that our William Stewart was the same William Stewart, et al, against whom General George Washington brought eviction proceedings, asserting that they were illegal squatters on his holding of 2,813 acres in Washington County. Our William Stewart could well have been the William Stewart on General Washington's land, since in all probability not all the evicted settlers had arrived 11 years earlier (1775). If William was a Seceder (a conservative splinter of the Presbyterian denomination), he could have joined these settlers in 1783. His land purchase in 1790 may have come after interim arrangements with Washington or his assigns to rent the land. According to Beers, many of the evictees made such arrangements. There is no record of William buying or selling any land within General Washington's original tract, so if he remained on it for some time after the eviction, it would have been as a tenant." (Source - Pennsylvania Footprints, A Stewart-Buente Family History by Richard Alan Stewart, 2002)

There were 14 individuals listed in the eviction proceedings brought by George Washington. They are listed in the article below by Joel Achenbach. Of these 14 individuals, seven appear on the 1790 Federal Census for Washington County; James McBride, John Reed, David Reed, James Scott, William Stewart, Samuel McBride and John Glenn. Whether this is our William Stewart remains a matter of speculation. (Note to File - JP Rhein)

“His (George Washington) avaricious attitude toward land was put on dramatic display in September 1784, when he toured his western holdings and came upon several families who had settled on plots he owned in western Pennsylvania. One can only imagine the disappointment the settlers felt in learning that the land they had been cultivating as their own for many years actually belonged to an absentee owner, and that the owner was none other than George Washington. When they questioned the legality of his title, Washington hired a lawyer to have them evicted if they refused to leave or pay him rent as tenants. ‘I viewed the defendants as willful and obstinate Sinners’, he explained, ‘persevering after & repeated admonition, in a design to injure me.’ He seemed to regard his land as an extension of himself, and therefore it occupation as a personal violation. The court case dragged on for two years, pitting the most powerful figure in the nation against a feisty delegation of impoverished farmers. Though he won the case, his victory did nothing to embellish his reputation for soaring majestically above his own private interests. The episode also exposed another anomaly produced by his insatiable hunger for land. Instead of the Jeffersonian model of independent yeoman farmers, Washington had opted for the Fairfax model of tenants and proprietary control, a choice almost calculated to slow westward migration, since no settler in his right mind would willingly opt to rent rather than own.” (Source – “His Excellency George Washington” by Joseph J. Ellis, published by Alfred A. Knopf, a division of Random House, New York, 2004. The extensive legal haggling concerning his land in western Pennsylvania is nicely summarized in the editorial note, The Papers of George Washington: Presidential Series, 11 volumes, 1:53-54,W.W. Abbot and Dorothy Twohig, Charlottesville).

Purchased Land First In Mercer County in 1788
And Subsequently in 1790 in Washington County, Pennsylvania

As noted earlier, William Stewart bought Lot #578 of the Donation Lands from William Liggins in 1788 in Mercer County and had purchased later in 1790, 29 and 1/2 acres in Washington County, indicating he planned to stay there, on a plot small enough to handle at the age of 52, and give Lot #578 to sons Robert and George. Then, in 1804, he sold this 29 and 1/2 acres, and in 1805 he wrote his will in Mercer County, giving his residence as Nafsanick Township, Mercer County, and giving to "my well beloved wife, Mary Stewart, a good sufficient living off or out (?) of the place I live on."

The question is, where is "the place I live on"? There is no record of his buying the land in Mercer County other Lot #578, so #578 was the only land he controlled such that he could give Mary "a good and sufficient living from it. So it appears that he and Mary lived on Lot #578, along with Robert and George. In 1804, William 66, which in those times was an advanced age. He and Mary must have felt the prospects for care were better in Mercer County than in Washington County. Their oldest daughter, Prudence Stewart Simpson, lived there with her husband, and Robert and George were developing #578, in anticipation of inheriting it. George married as early as 1805, so care for the "old folks" was at hand. Why they did not stay in Washington County, where Galbraith was making a name for himself, we don't know.

In 1808 Mercer County tax records show that the land was divided, 100 acres each between Robert and George. So William died between 1805, when he made his will, and 1808, when Robert and George are shown in Mercer County records as the owners of William's land. The graves of William I and Mary have never been located. Considering the proximity of the children, they were undoubtedly interred respectfully, in marked graves. Perhaps someday these graves will be found. (Source – “Pennsylvania Footprints, A Stewart-Buente Family History” by Richard Alan Stewart, pages 35 and 36)

Further Background On Who Is The
True Lieutenant William Stewart of
Washington County and Mercer County,

There was a William Stewart from Pennsylvania who served with the Second Canadian Regiment of the Continental Army. He joined his regiment in New York. He was considered a member of the Pennsylvania Line. He served under Moses Hazen who was a Lieutenant in the British Army, on half pay, when appointed Colonel, Second Canadian Regiment on January 22, 1776; Brevet Brigadier-General, June 29, 1781, retired June 1783. He died February 3rd, 1803. (Source - Historical Register of Officers of the Continental Army during the War of the Revolution) This William Stewart was awarded donation land lot #595 in present day Mercer County, Pennsylvania for his service. He never occupied lot #595 and it was sold for taxes in 1820, never having been "seated". Lieutenant William Stewart of Cumberland County bought lot #578 from a Private William Liggins of the Pennsylvania Line. Militia veterans did not qualify to be given donation land. Lot #578 was then bequeathed to Robert and George Stewart when Lieutenant William Stewart died, establishing the Stewart line permanently in Mercer County, Pennsylvania.

Several of the descendants of Lieutenant William Stewart in their application for membership in The Daughters of the American Revolution, have incorrectly referred to this William Stewart and to the donation land lot awarded to him.

"The lands north of Pittsburgh reserved for the Pennsylvania continental line were called the Donation Lands. Certificates were all so issued to Pennsylvania troops entitling them to cheap lands in compensation for the ravages of inflation on their pay; these were called Depreciation Lands. Most soldiers sold their rights rather than settle on the lands." (Source - The Depreciation and Donation Lands, Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine 8, 1925, John E. Winner)

The Pennsylvania Act of 1783 set aside the territory west of the Allegheny River and north of the Ohio River into two grant sections, "intended as donations to the Revolutionary soldiers of the Pennsylvania Line, and for the redemption of the certificates of depreciation from the continental scale given to them for their pay." The purpose of this act was to comply with the original promise of a bonus to soldiers. The Donation land included parts of the present counties of Lawrence, Butler, Armstrong, Venango, Forest, Warren and Erie, and the whole of Crawford and Mercer Counties. (Source "A Heritage, Biography and Family History of Harold W. Stewart", by Nora M. Stewart, Page 59)

An interresting aside on William Liggins who apparently married and moved to Ohio follows.

"General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Chapter LXXXV.

"An Act authorizing William Liggins to receive a patent for a donation tract of land for Mary,his wife.

"WHEREAS it has been made appear to the legislature, that Thomas Davis enlisted as a soldier in Colonel Moses Hazen's regiment, early in the revolutionary war: That he died of wounds he received by the bursting of a shell at the siege o Yorktown, and that he left a widow who has intermarried with William Liggins, now with his wife resident in the State of Ohio, who has petitioned the legislature to be allowed to receive a patent for a donation tract of land, to which his wife is in equity entitled. Therefore,

Sect. 1. BE it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in General Assembly met, and it is hereby enacted by authority of the same, That the land-officers, be and are hereby directed to issue a patent for two hundred acres of donation land to the said William Liggins, in Trust for the use of Mary his wife, late Mary Davis, her heirs and assigns in the usual manner.

JOHN WEBBER, Speaker of the House of Representatives.

P.C. LANE, Speaker of the Senate

Approved - the nineteeth day of March, one thousand eight hundred and ten.


Lieutenant William Stewart, reference DAR Patriot Index, page 649.
Heber Ivo Rankin, SAR Number 98080.

The Will of William Stewart, Mercer County, Pennsylvania, 1811

"In the Name of God Amen this Second day of April in the year of our Lord One Thousand Eight hundred and five I William Stewart of Nafsonick (Neshannock) Township Mefser (Mercer) County and State of Pennsylvania being very weak in body thoug of perfect mind and good memory thanks be to God for his Mercies to Me therefore Calling to mind the mortality of my Body and knowing it is appointed for all men once t die do make and Ordain this my Last Will and testament that is to say principally and first of all I do give and Recommend my Soul into the hands of the Almighty God that give it and my Body I recommend to the Dust to be Buried in Deaecn Christian burial at descretion of my Exrs Nothing Doubting but at the General Resurrection I shall Receive the Same again by the mighty power o God that made it and as in this life I do demise and despose of in the following manner and for vis (First) I do give and bequeath to my Well beloved Wife Mary Stewart a good Sufficient Living or Support off or out of the place I live on During her Widowhood (Secondly) I do give and bequeath to me Son Ben amin and Jus and full Sum of Eight Shilings and Sixpence* (thirdly) I do give and bequeth to my Daughter prudence the Just and full sum of Eight Shilings and Sixpence (fourthly) I do give and bequeath to my son Galbreath Stewart the Just and full Sum of Eight Shillings and Sixpence (Fifthly) I do give and bequeath to my Son John Stewart the Just and full Sum ofeight Shilings and Sixpence (Sixthly) I do give and bequeath to my daughter Rebacah forbes the Just and full Sum of Eight Shilings and Sixpence (Seventhly) I do give and bequeth to my daughter Mary Anderson the Just and full sum of Eight Shilings and Sixpence (Eightly) I do give and Bequeath to my daughter Elizabeth Bealy the Just and full sum ofeight Shilings and Sixpence (ninthly) I do give and bequeath to my Son William Stewart the Just and full Sum of Eight Shillings and Sixpence (Tenthly) I do give and bequeath to my two Sons Robert and George all my Real Estate and Each of them a good feather bed and Beding and to My Son George I do give and bequeath my young Sorel horse also to My Loving Wife Mary Stewart the Remainder of my personal property for her yuse While she Remains in her widowhood Excep my wagon and Smith tools which I do give and bequeth to my two Sons Robert and George (Lastly) I do constitute and ordain my wife Mary Stewart and my Son Robert Stewart to be the Whole and Sole Executers of this my Last Will and Testament and I do hereby utterly disallow Revoke and disanull every other former Will or Testament Legacies bequeaths or Exrs. By me in any Wise Made or Confirmed Ratifying and Confirming this and no other to be my Last Will and testament in witness Whereof I have here unto set hand and Seal the day and year Within mentioned

Signed Sealed & pronounced by me the
Within Names William Stewart to be William Stewart
my Last will and testament in the presance of

Tho Goddon
John Lauvimore


Also information on Lieutenant William Stewart and his descendants was taken from the following sources.

"Frontier Families of Toby Township, Clarion County, Pennsylvania" by Heber Rankin, Janice Yingling, Editor, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, May, 1995.

"A Family of Millers & Stewarts" by Dr. Robert F. Miller, St. Louis, Missouri, 1909.

"Information from Notes and Queries by Engle, 1898 annual magazine, page 185."

Stewart, Lieutenant William (I0010)
250 I have several comments on the following article by Colonel T. L. Galloway. They are shown in parenthesis. Additionally, I have linked various individuals listed in the article to their page on the web site. Additional insight to this litigation can be gained from the excellent article by William Gilbreath that appeared in the Summer 2004 (Vol 25 - No 4) issue of The Red Tower, Clan Galbraith Association, "Major Hugh Galbraith of Ireland - Case Closed". (Note to File - JP Rhein)

“In 1687 James Galbraith, (I4290) "writer in Edinburgh," bought the lands of Balgair, adjacent to Culcreuch and part of the old barony of Ballindalloch, which had belonged for so long to the Cunninghams. It will, therefore, be interesting to inquire how this James Galbraith was connected with the old Galbraiths of the district.

In doing this it will, unfortunately, be necessary to differ in some respects from the views of the author of "Strathendrick." Guthrie Smith, when writing of the Culcreuch family, states that the Galbraiths of Balgair probably had as ancestor Robert Galbraith (I4292), a brother of Andrew Galbraith of Culcreuch (I4257), and who, in 1548, made a contract of marriage with Janet Seyton (I4293). But in the Chapter relating to Balgair the Galbraiths in Hill of Balgair are taken as being descended from this Robert, and no clear descent is deduced for James Galbraith who bought Balgair in 1687. The view now taken is that James Galbraith of Balgair 1687 was descended from Robert Galbraith, brother of Andrew Galbraith of Culcreuch, and that the Galbraiths in Hill of Balgair were descended from John Galbraith in Balgair (I4255) before 1534, who was an earlier cadet of Culcreuch probably a son of Humphrey (I4256), a younger brother of Thomas (I4258) who was hanged in 1489, and of James Galbraith of Culcreuch (I4260).

James Galbraith, writer in Edinburgh, having bought the lands of Balgair, proceeded to make an entail of these lands. The substitutes of entail were eight in number, beginning with the two sons of his cousin, George Galbraith, merchant in Edinburgh, and ending with his far-out kinsmen, John and George Galbraith, who had a joint lease for 133 years from 1693 of the Hill of Balgair, or Middle Balgair. The deed of entail was registered in the Register of Entails in 1706.

George Galbraith, merchant in Edinburgh, was a son of Mr. John Galbraith, minister in Bothkennar. Mr. John Galbraith and his wife, Katherine Norvell, had a large family, viz.:—James also "writer in Edinburgh,'' before 1670 when he died, John, George, Michael, Humphrey (minister at Dollar), and two daughters; but, by the time of the entail, only the children of George survived. And so we see that James Galbraith, the entailer (I4290), had an uncle, Mr. John Galbraith. He had also another uncle, Andrew Galbraith (I4317), a half-brother of Mr. John, and father of Hugh Galbraith (I4318), the third substitute of entail.

Now, in 1654, Mr. John Galbraith and his spouse had a tack of Balgair from John Buchanan for all the years of their lives. The tack was registered in the Register of Deeds in 1663, after the death of John Galbraith. It is gathered from this lease that Balgair had been the home of himself and his predecessors for many years.

Since we know that Balgair was occupied by James Galbraith (I4296) from before 1593 till 1628 and as we see John Galbraith (I4305) in 1654 getting a new tack of his old family home for the rest of his life, there seems to be little doubt that John Galbraith was the son of James Galbraith in Balgair 1593. And it therefore follows that the father of James Galbraith, the entailer, was also a son of James Galbraith in Balgair 1593, and was, evidently, the Robert Galbraith in Hilton of Balgair, mentioned indeed on page 231 of "Strathendrick" as a son of James Galbraith in Balgair, but there given, erroneously, as an ancestor of the Galbraiths in Hill of Balgair. It should be noted that Hilton, or Haltoun, was a part of Easter Balgair and not to be confused with Hill of Balgair. "Strathendrick," p. 30. James Galbraith in Balgair 1593 is said, probably, to be a son of Robert Galbraith, "brother german of the late Andrew Galbraith of Gylcruuch." This is evidently correct, and is supported by the following evidence. James Galbraith in Balgair and Andrew Galbraith in Tomdarroch are mentioned many times together. They both appear as being implicated along with others in the slaughter of Robert Lindsay (1533-94) (vide, "Strathendrick," p. 232); and again in the Register of the Privy Council there is this entry:—Caution in £2,000 by Robert Galbraith of Culcreuch as principal and Alexander Seyton of Gargunnok as surety for him (that he would not intercommune with any of the surname of Buchanan, Macgregor or Macfarlane, fugitives from the laws for criminal causes). The bond was presented for registration by Francis Galbraith, "Panniter" to his Majesty, as procurator for the parties and subscribed at Gargunnok, 18th May, 1593, before James Galbraith in Bolgair, Andro Galbraith in Tomdarroch, William Galbraith, Steward in Culcreuch, and George Auld, minister and notary public.

Andrew Galbraith (I4294) married Isabell Cunningham widow of Humphrey Galbraith in Balgair, who had died in 1578 Testament.

Humphrey Galbraith left a brother, William (I4291) in Western Balgair, but his own two sons, James (I4240) and John (I4262) were minors, and when his widow married Andrew Galbraith in Tomdarroch (I4294), the occupancy of Balgair (or Eastern Balgair) was given to James Galbraith (I4240) who for many years after was known as James Galbraith in Balgair. (This is James Galbraith, Gudman of Balgair, Scotland.)

All this points to the fact that James and Andrew were brothers. But Andrew was son of Robert Galbraith in Tomdarroch, the brother of Andrew Galbraith, the laird of Culcreuch, and, therefore, James Galbraith in Balgair 1593 (I4296) was also son of Robert Galbraith.

To sum up the evidence, it seems clear that the beneficial occupancy of Balgair, which from before 1534 had been with John Galbraith (I4292) in Balgair, and thereafter with his son Humphrey Galbraith (I4253) until 1578, passed after that date to James Galbraith, the brother of Andrew Galbraith in Tomdarroch who married Humphrey's widow and who was a son of Robert Galbraith, a brother of the laird of Culcreuch. (This is not correct)

Andrew in Tomdarroch and James in Balgair 1593 (I42960 had probably at least one other brother—William Galbraith in Frew (I4306). In 1614, there is a summons at the instance of William Galbraith in Frew against James Galbraith in Balgair for debt.

James Galbraith was alive on 11th January 1628, as, on that date, there is a summons by James Galbraith in Balgair against Andrew Cunningham and others. But, in 1629, in the Register of Sasines for Stirlingshire, there is mentioned a William Galbraith in Frew, son and heir of William Galbraith in Balgair. So it seems that James Galbraith in Balgair must have died about this time, and that his brother William took over the occupation of

It is not known exactly when Mr. John Galbraith had his first tack of Balgair but as noted above he had his tack renewed in 1654.It is clear, therefore, that James Galbraith, writer in Edinburgh, was closely connected with the lands of Balgair, and was a descendant of the Galbraiths of Culcreuch, and that when he bought this portion of the old barony of Ballindalloch in 1687, he did not come to the district as a stranger.

James Galbraith the entailer of Balgair died in 1707 leaving no children, and John Galbraith, the first substitute of entail, succeeded; but he died soon afterwards in Flanders in July 1707, and James Galbraith his brother, a younger son of George Galbraith merchant in Edinburgh, took up the estate of Balgair as second substitute. He it was who built the mansion house of Balgair in 1720; but this house was hardly ever occupied, as it soon fell into disrepair and then into ruins.

The estate of Balgair remained with the descendants of John Galbraith until his grandson, James Galbraith, a son of Rear-Admiral James Galbraith, died at sea in 1794 leaving no family; and thus the line of the second substitute of entail came to an end.
Advertisements were then inserted in the newspapers for heirs, and, finally, Richard Galbraith from County Galway, Ireland, was served as heir to Hugh Galbraith the third substitute of entail, and was duly infeft, in the lands of Balgair. His claim, though not contested at the time, was not quite clear, and led to a case being raised in the courts, which finally was taken to the House of Lords by a descendant of John Galbraith in Hill of Balgair, the seventh substitute of entail. He, however, was unsuccessful in having the service reduced and Balgair remained in the possession of the descendants of Richard Galbraith until it was sold by James Galbraith of Manitoba, Canada, on 22nd April, 1914” (Source – Galbraiths of The Lennox, Compiled by Colonel T.L. Galloway of Auchendrana in 1944)
the Entailer, James Galbraith (I4290)

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